## New Possibilities for Building High-Vacuum Chambers Using Glued Aluminum Plates and Application to Sputtered Nanocomposite Coatings

• In this work the investigation of a (Ti, Al, Si) N system was done. The main point of investigation was to study the possibility of getting the nanocomposite coatings structures by deposition of multilayer films from TiN, AlSiN, . This tries to understand the relation between the mechanical properties (hardness, Young s modulus), and the microstructure (nanocrystalline with individual phases). Particularly special attention was given to the temperature effects on microstructural changes in annealing at 600 °C for the coatings. The surface hardness, elastic modulus, and the multilayers diffusion and compositions were the test tools for the comparison between the different coated samples with and without annealing at 600 °C. To achieve this object a rectangular aluminum vacuum chamber with three unbalanced sputtering magnetrons for the deposition of thin film coatings from different materials was constructed The chamber consists mainly of two chambers, the pre-vacuum chamber to load the workpiece, and the main vacuum chamber where the sputtering deposition of the thin film coatings take place. The workpiece is moving on a car travel on a railway between the two chambers to the position of the magnetrons by step motors. The chambers are divided by a self constructed rectangular gate controlled manually from outside the chamber. The chamber was sealed for vacuum use using glue and screws. Therefore, different types of glue were tested not only for its ability to develop an uniform thin layer in the gap between the aluminum plates to seal the chamber for vacuum use, but also low outgassing rates which made it suitable for vacuum use. A epoxy was able to fulfill this tasks. The evacuation characteristics of the constructed chamber was improved by minimizing the inner surface outgassing rate. Therefore, the throughput outgassing rate test method was used in the comparisons between the selected two aluminum materials (A2017 and A5353) samples short time period (one hour) outgassing rates. Different machining methods and treatments for the inner surface of the vacuum chamber were tested. The machining of the surface of material A (A2017) with ethanol as coolant fluid was able to reduce its outgassing rate a factor of 6 compared with a non-machined sample surface of the same material. The reduction of the surface porous oxide layer on the top of the aluminum surface by the pickling process with HNO3 acid, and the protection of it by producing another passive non-porous oxides layer using anodizing process will protect the surface for longer time and will minimize the outgassing rates even under humid atmosphere The residual gas analyzer (RGA) 6. Summary test shows that more than 85% of the gases inside the test chamber were water vapour (H2O) and the rests are (N2, H2, CO), so liquid nitrogen water vapor trap can enhance the chamber pumping down process. As a result it was possible to construct a chamber that can be pumped down using a turbo molecular pump (450 L/s) to the range of 1x10-6 mbar within one hour of evacuations where the chamber volume is 160 Litters and the inner surface area is 1.6 m2. This is a good base pressure for the process of sputtering deposition of hard thin film coatings. Multilayer thin film coating was deposited to demonstrate that nanostructured thin film within the (Ti, Al, Si) N system could be prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering of multi thin film layers of TiN, AlSiN. The (SNMS) spectrometry of the test samples show that a complete diffusion between the different deposited thin film coating layers in each sample takes place, even at low substrate deposition temperature. The high magnetic flux of the unbalanced magnetrons and the high sputtering power were able to produce a high ion-toatom flux, which give high mobility to the coated atoms. The interactions between the high mobility of the coated atoms and the ion-to-atom flux were sufficient to enhance the diffusion between the different deposited thin layers. It was shown from the XRD patterns for this system that the structure of the formed mixture consists of two phases. One phase is noted as TiN bulk and another detected unknown amorphous phase, which can be SiNx or AlN or a combination of Ti-Al-Si-N. As a result we where able to deposit a nanocomposite coatings by the deposition of multilayers from TiN, AlSiN thin film coatings using the constructed vacuum chamber

$Rev: 12793$