Der Trend der letzten Jahre im CAx-Bereich geht eindeutig in Richtung 3D-Modellierung. Der Einsatz dieser Technologie ist jedoch erst dann wirtschaftlich sinnvoll, wenn die generierten Daten nicht ausschließlich als Ersatz für 2D-Zeichnungen dienen, sondern während des gesamten Produkt-entstehungsprozesses eingesetzt werden und auf diese Weise Datendurchgängigkeit gewährleistet wird. Mittlerweile wird ein umfangreiches Spektrum von Anwendungen eingesetzt. Beispielhaft sei-en hier Berechnungs- und Simulationsprogramme oder die 3D-Produktvisualisierung in nicht-technischen Bereichen (z. B. Marketing, Vertrieb) genannt. Viele CA-Systeme bieten zwar eine große Auswahl an Modulen für nahezu alle Bereiche der Produktentwicklung, allerdings ist kein System, unabhängig von seiner Komplexität, in der Lage, alle Anforderungen seiner Anwender zu erfüllen. Deshalb kommen in immer größerem Umfang spezielle Programme für individuelle Probleme zum Einsatz. Der Anwender sieht sich jedoch mit Schwierigkeiten konfrontiert, wenn er versucht, für spezielle Probleme spezielle Anwendungen unterschiedlicher Systemhersteller einzusetzen. Um die Integrati-on der verschiedenen Programme zu ermöglichen, muß er sich auf neutrale Standardschnittstellen für den Produktdatenaustausch (IGES, VDAFS, STEP) verlassen, wobei hier mit Informationsverlusten zu rechnen ist. Außerdem muß er sich mit differierenden Benutzerführungen vertraut machen. Im Bewußtsein dieser Probleme entwickelte die Arbeitsgruppe "CAD/CAM-Strategien der deut-schen Automobilindustrie" einen Vorschlag für eine offene CAx-Systemarchitektur /1/, /2/, /3/. Diese sollte in der Lage sein, alle CAx-Komponenten, die im Laufe des Produktent-stehungsprozesses verwendet werden, zu integrieren. Es sollte unter anderem die folgenden Anforderungen erfüllen: ° Offenheit ° Interoperabilität ° Investitionssicherheit ° Aufhebung der Zwangsbindung des Anwenders an einen Systemhersteller ° Vermeidung redundanter Systeme Die Berücksichtigung der internationalen Standards STEP für den Bereich der Produktdatenmo-dellierung und CORBA für den Bereich der verteilten objektorientierten Systeme, die in den folgen-den Abschnitten kurz dargestellt sind, war für die Erfüllung dieser Anforderungen eine wichtige Voraussetzung
Phase velocities of surface acoustic waves in several boron nitride films were investigated by Brillouin light scattering. In the case of films with predominantly hexagonal crystal structure, grown under conditions close to the nucleation threshold of cubic BN, four independent elastic constants have been determined from the dispersion of the Rayleigh and the first Sezawa mode. The large elastic anisotropy of up to c11/c33 = 0.1 is attributed to a pronounced texture with the c-axes of the crystallites parallel to the film plane. In the case of cubic BN films the dispersion of the Rayleigh wave provides evidence for the existence of a more compliant layer at the substrate-film interface. The observed broadening of the Rayleigh mode is identified to be caused by the film morphology.
It is well-known that some of the classical location problems with polyhedral gauges can be solved in polynomial time by finding a finite dominating set, i.e. a finite set of candidates guaranteed to contain at least one optimal location. In this paper it is first established that this result holds for a much larger class of problems than currently considered in the literature. The model for which this result can be proven includes, for instance, location problems with attraction and repulsion, and location-allocation problems. Next, it is shown that the approximation of general gauges by polyhedral ones in the objective function of our general model can be analyzed with regard to the subsequent error in the optimal objective value. For the approximation problem two different approaches are described, the sandwich procedure and the greedy algorithm. Both of these approaches lead - for fixed epsilon - to polynomial approximation algorithms with accuracy epsilon for solving the general model considered in this paper.
FeNi/FeMn exchange bias samples with a large exchange bias field at room temperature have been prepared on a Cu buffer layer. Upon irradiation with He ions, both the exchange bias field and the coercive field are modified. For low ion doses the exchange bias field is enhanced by nearly a factor of 2. Above a threshold dose of 0.3olsi 10 15 ions/cm 2 , the exchange bias field decreases continuously as the ion dose increases. The ob-served modifications are explained in terms of defect creation acting as pinning sites for domain walls and atomic intermixing.
For the next generation of high data rate magnetic recording above 1 Gbit/s, a better understanding of the switching processes for both recording heads and media will be required. In order to maximize the switch-ing speed for such devices, the magnetization precession after the magnetic field pulse termination needs to be suppressed to a maximum degree. It is demonstrated experimentally for ferrite films that the appropriate adjustment of the field pulse parameters and/or the static applied field may lead to a full suppression of the magnetization precession immediately upon termination of the field pulse. The suppression is explained by taking into account the actual direction of the magnetization with respect to the static field direction at the pulse termination.
Besides the work in the field of manipulating rigid objects, currently, there are several research and development activities going on in the field of manipulating non-rigid or deformable objects. Several papers have been published on international conferences in this field from various projects and countries. But there has been no comprehensive work which provides both a representative overview of the state of the art and identifies the important aspects in this field. Thus, we collected these activities and invited the corresponding working groups to present an overview of their research. Altogether, nineteen authors coming from Japan, Germany, Italy, Greece, United Kingdom, and Australia contributed to this book. Their research work covers all the different aspects that occur when manipulating deformable objects. The contributions can be characterized and grouped by the following four aspects: * object modeling and simulation, * planning and control strategies, * collaborative systems, and * applications and industrial experiences. In the following, we give a short motivation and overview of the single chapters of the book. The simulation of deformable objects is one way to approach the problem of manipulating these objects by robots. Based on a physical model of the object and the occurring constraints, the resulting object shape is calculated. In Chapter 2, Hirai presents an energy-based approach, where the internal energy under the geometric constraints is minimized. Frugoli et al. introduce a force-based approach, where the forces between discrete particles are minimized meeting given constraints. Finally, Remde and Henrich extend the energy-based approach to plastic deformation and give a solution of the inverse simulation problem. Even if the object behavior is predicted by simulation, there is still the question of how to control the robot during a single manipulation operation. An additional question is how to retrieve an overall plan for the concatenated manipulation operations. In Chapter 3, Wada investigates the control problems when positioning multiple points of a planar deformable object. McCarrager proposes a control scheme exploiting the flexibility, rather than minimizing it. Abegg et al. use a simple contact state model to describe typical assembly tasks and to derive robust manipulation primitives. Finally, Ono presents an automatic sewing system and suggests a strategy for unfolding fabric. In several manipulation tasks, it is reasonable to apply more than one robot. Especially in cases, where the deformable object has to take a specific shape. Since the robots working at the same object are influencing each other, different control algorithms have to be introduced. In Chapter 4, Yoshida and Kosuge investigates this problem for the task of bending a sheet of metal and exploits the relation ship between the static object deformation and the bending moments. Tanner and Kyriakopoulos regard the deformable object as underactuated mechanical system and make use of the existence of non-holonomic constraints. Both approaches model the deformable object as finite elements. All of the above aspects have their counterpart in different applications and industrial experiences. In Chapter 5, Rizzi et al. present test cases and applications of their approach to simulate the manipulation of fabric, wires, cables, and soft bags. Buckingham and Graham give an overview of two European projects processing white fish including locating, gripping, and deheading the fish. Maruyama outlines the three development phases of a robot system for performing outage-free maintenance of live-line power supply in Japan. Finally, Kämper presents the development of a flexible automatic cabling unit for the wiring of long-tube lighting with plug components.
A new and systematic basic approach to force- and vision-based robot manipulation of deformable (non-rigid) linear objects is introduced. This approach reduces the computational needs by using a simple state-oriented model of the objects. These states describe the relation between the deformable and rigid obstacles, and are derived from the object image and its features. We give an enumeration of possible contact states and discuss the main characteristics of each state. We investigate the performance of robust transitions between the contact states and derive criteria and conditions for each of the states and for two sensor systems, i.e. a vision sensor and a force/torque sensor. This results in a new and task-independent approach in regarding the handling of deformable objects and in a sensor-based implementation of manipulation primitives for industrial robots. Thus, the usage of sensor processing is an appropriate solution for our problem. Finally, we apply the concept of contact states and state transitions to the description of a typical assembly task. Experimental results show the feasibility of our approach: A robot performs several contact state transitions which can be combined for solving a more complex task.