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The thesis at hand deals with the numerical solution of multiscale problems arising in the modeling of processes in fluid and thermo dynamics. Many of these processes, governed by partial differential equations, are relevant in engineering, geoscience, and environmental studies. More precisely, this thesis discusses the efficient numerical computation of effective macroscopic thermal conductivity tensors of high-contrast composite materials. The term "high-contrast" refers to large variations in the conductivities of the constituents of the composite. Additionally, this thesis deals with the numerical solution of Brinkman's equations. This system of equations adequately models viscous flows in (highly) permeable media. It was introduced by Brinkman in 1947 to reduce the deviations between the measurements for flows in such media and the predictions according to Darcy's model.

The work consists of two parts.
In the first part an optimization problem of structures of linear elastic material with contact modeled by Robin-type boundary conditions is considered. The structures model textile-like materials and possess certain quasiperiodicity properties. The homogenization method is used to represent the structures by homogeneous elastic bodies and is essential for formulations of the effective stress and Poisson's ratio optimization problems. At the micro-level, the classical one-dimensional Euler-Bernoulli beam model extended with jump conditions at contact interfaces is used. The stress optimization problem is of a PDE-constrained optimization type, and the adjoint approach is exploited. Several numerical results are provided.
In the second part a non-linear model for simulation of textiles is proposed. The yarns are modeled by hyperelastic law and have no bending stiffness. The friction is modeled by the Capstan equation. The model is formulated as a problem with the rate-independent dissipation, and the basic continuity and convexity properties are investigated. The part ends with numerical experiments and a comparison of the results to a real measurement.

We consider two major topics in this thesis: spatial domain partitioning which serves as a framework to simulate creep flows in representative volume elements.
First, we introduce a novel multi-dimensional space partitioning method. A new type of tree combines the advantages of the Octree and the KD-tree without having their disadvantages. We present a new data structure allowing local refinement, parallelization and proper restriction of transition ratios between nodes. Our technique has no dimensional restrictions at all. The tree's data structure is defined by a topological algebra based on the symbols \( A = \{ L, I, R \} \) that encode the partitioning steps. The set of successors is restricted such that each node has the partition of unity property to partition domains without overlap. With our method it is possible to construct a wide choice of spline spaces to compress or reconstruct scientific data such as pressure and velocity fields and multidimensional images. We present a generator function to build a tree that represents a voxel geometry. The space partitioning system is used as a framework to allow numerical computations. This work is triggered by the problem of representing, in a numerically appropriate way, huge three-dimensional voxel geometries that could have up to billions of voxels. These large datasets occure in situations where it is needed to deal with large representative volume elements (REV).
Second, we introduce a novel approach of variable arrangement for pressure and velocity to solve the Stokes equations. The basic idea of our method is to arrange variables in a way such that each cell is able to satisfy a given physical law independently from its neighbor cells. This is done by splitting velocity values to a left and right converging component. For each cell we can set up a small linear system that describes the momentum and mass conservation equations. This formulation allows to use the Gauß-Seidel algorithm to solve the global linear system. Our tree structure is used for spatial partitioning of the geometry and provides a proper initial guess. In addition, we introduce a method that uses the actual velocity field to refine the tree and improve the numerical accuracy where it is needed. We developed a novel approach rather than using existing approaches such as the SIMPLE algorithm, Lattice-Boltzmann methods or Exlicit jump methods since they are suited for regular grid structures. Other standard CFD approaches extract surfaces and creates tetrahedral meshes to solve on unstructured grids thus can not be applied to our datastructure. The discretization converges to the analytical solution with respect to grid refinement. We conclude a high strength in computational time and memory for high porosity geometries and a high strength in memory requirement for low porosity geometries.

Optimal control of partial differential equations is an important task in applied mathematics where it is used in order to optimize, for example, industrial or medical processes. In this thesis we investigate an optimal control problem with tracking type cost functional for the Cattaneo equation with distributed control, that is, \(\tau y_{tt} + y_t - \Delta y = u\). Our focus is on the theoretical and numerical analysis of the limit process \(\tau \to 0\) where we prove the convergence of solutions of the Cattaneo equation to solutions of the heat equation.
We start by deriving both the Cattaneo and the classical heat equation as well as introducing our notation and some functional analytic background. Afterwards, we prove the well-posedness of the Cattaneo equation for homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions, that is, we show the existence and uniqueness of a weak solution together with its continuous dependence on the data. We need this in the following, where we investigate the optimal control problem for the Cattaneo equation: We show the existence and uniqueness of a global minimizer for an optimal control problem with tracking type cost functional and the Cattaneo equation as a constraint. Subsequently, we do an asymptotic analysis for \(\tau \to 0\) for both the forward equation and the aforementioned optimal control problem and show that the solutions of these problems for the Cattaneo equation converge strongly to the ones for the heat equation. Finally, we investigate these problems numerically, where we examine the different behaviour of the models and also consider the limit \(\tau \to 0\), suggesting a linear convergence rate.