## Doctoral Thesis

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#### Year of publication

- 2005 (6) (remove)

#### Document Type

- Doctoral Thesis (6) (remove)

#### Keywords

- Mobilfunk (3)
- air interface (2)
- mobile radio (2)
- Basisband (1)
- Channel estimation (1)
- Digitalmodulation (1)
- Empfängerorientierung (1)
- Funkdienst (1)
- Gemeinsame Kanalschaetzung (1)
- Interferenz (1)

#### Faculty / Organisational entity

- Fachbereich Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik (6) (remove)

Channel estimation is of great importance in many wireless communication systems, since it influences the overall performance of a system significantly. Especially in multi-user and/or multi-antenna systems, i.e. generally in multi-branch systems, the requirements on channel estimation are very high, since the training signals or so called pilots that are used for channel estimation suffer from multiple access interference. Recently, in the context with such systems more and more attention is paid to concepts for joint channel estimation (JCE) which have the capability to eliminate the multiple access interference and also the interference between the channel coefficients. The performance of JCE can be evaluated in noise limited systems by the SNR degradation and in interference limited systems by the variation coefficient. Theoretical analysis carried out in this thesis verifies that both performance criteria are closely related to the patterns of the pilots used for JCE, no matter the signals are represented in the time domain or in the frequency domain. Optimum pilots like disjoint pilots, Walsh code based pilots or CAZAC code based pilots, whose constructions are described in this thesis, do not show any SNR degradation when being applied to multi-branch systems. It is shown that optimum pilots constructed in the time domain become optimum pilots in the frequency domain after a discrete Fourier transformation. Correspondingly, optimum pilots in the frequency domain become optimum pilots in the time domain after an inverse discrete Fourier transformation. However, even for optimum pilots different variation coefficients are obtained in interference limited systems. Furthermore, especially for OFDM-based transmission schemes the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmit signal is an important decision criteria for choosing the most suitable pilots. CAZAC code based pilots are the only pilots among the regarded pilot constructions that result in a PAPR of 0 dB for the transmit signal that origins in the transmitted pilots. When summarizing the analysis regarding the SNR degradation, the variation coefficient and the PAPR with respect to one single service area and considering the impact due to interference from other adjacent service areas that occur due to a certain choice of the pilots, one can conclude that CAZAC codes are the most suitable pilots for the application in JCE of multi-carrier multi-branch systems, especially in the case if CAZAC codes that origin in different mother codes are assigned to different adjacent service areas. The theoretical results of the thesis are verified by simulation results. The choice of the parameters for the frequency domain or time domain JCE is oriented towards the evaluated implementation complexity. According to the chosen parameterization of the regarded OFDM-based and FMT-based systems it is shown that a frequency domain JCE is the best choice for OFDM and a time domain JCE is the best choice for FMT applying CAZAC codes as pilots. The results of this thesis can be used as a basis for further theoretical research and also for future JCE implementation in wireless systems.

The present thesis deals with a novel approach to increase the resource usage in digital communications. In digital communication systems, each information bearing data symbol is associated to a waveform which is transmitted over a physical medium. The time or frequency separations among the waveforms associated to the information data have always been chosen to avoid or limit the interference among them. By doing so, n the presence of a distortionless ideal channel, a single receive waveform is affected as little as possible by the presence of the other waveforms. The conditions necessary to meet the absence of any interference among the waveforms are well known and consist of a relationship between the minimum time separation among the waveforms and their bandwidth occupation or, equivalently, the minimum frequency separation and their time occupation. These conditions are referred to as Nyquist assumptions. The key idea of this work is to relax the Nyquist assumptions and to transmit with a time and/or frequency separation between the waveforms smaller than the minimum required to avoid interference. The reduction of the time and/or frequency separation generates not only an increment of the resource usage, but also a degradation in the quality of the received data. Therefore, to maintain a certain quality in the received signal, we have to increase the amount of transmitted power. We investigate the trade-off between the increment of the resource usage and the correspondent performance degradation in three different cases. The first case is the single carrier case in which all waveforms have the same spectrum, but have different temporal locations. The second one is the multi carrier case in which each waveform has its distinct spectrum and occupies all the available time. Finally, the hybrid case when each waveform has its unique time and frequency location. These different cases are framed within the general system modelling developed in the thesis so that they can be easily compared. We evaluate the potential of the key idea of the thesis by choosing a set of four possible waveforms with different characteristics. By doing so, we study the influence of the waveform characteristics in the three system configurations. We propose an interpretation of the results by modifying the well-known Shannon capacity formula and by explicitly expressing its dependency on the increment of resource usage and on the performance degradation. The results are very promising. We show that both in the case of a single carrier system with a time limited waveform and in the case of a multi-carrier system with a frequency limited waveform, the reduction of the time or frequency separation, respectively, has a positive effect on the channel capacity. The latter, depending on the actual SNR, can double or increase even more significantly.

In conventional radio communication systems, the system design generally starts from the transmitter (Tx), i.e. the signal processing algorithm in the transmitter is a priori selected, and then the signal processing algorithm in the receiver is a posteriori determined to obtain the corresponding data estimate. Therefore, in these conventional communication systems, the transmitter can be considered the master and the receiver can be considered the slave. Consequently, such systems can be termed transmitter (Tx) oriented. In the case of Tx orientation, the a priori selected transmitter algorithm can be chosen with a view to arrive at particularly simple transmitter implementations. This advantage has to be countervailed by a higher implementation complexity of the a posteriori determined receiver algorithm. Opposed to the conventional scheme of Tx orientation, the design of communication systems can alternatively start from the receiver (Rx). Then, the signal processing algorithm in the receiver is a priori determined, and the transmitter algorithm results a posteriori. Such an unconventional approach to system design can be termed receiver (Rx) oriented. In the case of Rx orientation, the receiver algorithm can be a priori selected in such a way that the receiver complexity is minimum, and the a posteriori determined transmitter has to tolerate more implementation complexity. In practical communication systems the implementation complexity corresponds to the weight, volume, cost etc of the equipment. Therefore, the complexity is an important aspect which should be taken into account, when building practical communication systems. In mobile radio communication systems, the complexity of the mobile terminals (MTs) should be as low as possible, whereas more complicated implementations can be tolerated in the base station (BS). Having in mind the above mentioned complexity features of the rationales Tx orientation and Rx orientation, this means that in the uplink (UL), i.e. in the radio link from the MT to the BS, the quasi natural choice would be Tx orientation, which leads to low cost transmitters at the MTs, whereas in the downlink (DL), i.e. in the radio link from the BS to the MTs, the rationale Rx orientation would be the favorite alternative, because this results in simple receivers at the MTs. Mobile radio downlinks with the rationale Rx orientation are considered in the thesis. Modern mobile radio communication systems are cellular systems, in which both the intracell and intercell interferences exist. These interferences are the limiting factors for the performance of mobile radio systems. The intracell interference can be eliminated or at least reduced by joint signal processing with consideration of all the signals in the considered cell. However such joint signal processing is not feasible for the elimination of intercell interference in practical systems. Knowing that the detrimental effect of intercell interference grows with its average energy, the transmit energy radiated from the transmitter should be as low as possible to keep the intercell interference low. Low transmit energy is required also with respect to the growing electro-phobia of the public. The transmit energy reduction for multi-user mobile radio downlinks by the rationale Rx orientation is dealt with in the thesis. Among the questions still open in this research area, two questions of major importance are considered here. MIMO is an important feature with respect to the transmit power reduction of mobile radio systems. Therefore, first questionconcerns the linear Rx oriented transmission schemes combined with MIMO antenna structures. The investigations of the MIMO benefit on the linear Rx oriented transmission schemes are studied in the thesis. Utilization of unconventional multiply connected quantization schemes at the receiver has also great potential to reduce the transmit energy. Therefore, the second question considers the designing of non-linear Rx oriented transmission schemes combined with multiply connected quantization schemes.

The thesis is focused on modelling and simulation of a Joint Transmission and Detection Integrated Network (JOINT), a novel air interface concept for B3G mobile radio systems. Besides the utilization of the OFDM transmission technique, which is a promising candidate for future mobile radio systems, and of the duplexing scheme time division duplexing (TDD), the subdivision of the geographical domain to be supported by mobile radio communications into service areas (SAs) is a highlighted concept of JOINT. A SA consists of neighboring sub-areas, which correspond to the cells of conventional cellular systems. The signals in a SA are jointly processed in a Central Unit (CU) in each SA. The CU performs joint channel estimation (JCE) and joint detection (JD) in the form of the receive-zero-forcing (RxZF) Filter for the uplink (UL) transmission and joint transmission (JT) in the form of the transmit-zero-forcing (TxZF) Filter for the downlink (DL) transmission. By these algorithms intra-SA multiple access interference (MAI) can be eliminated within the limits of the used model so that unbiased data estimates are obtained, and most of the computational effort is moved from mobile terminals (MTs) to the CU so that the MTs can do with low complexity. A simulation chain of JOINT has been established in the software MLDesigner by the author based on time discrete equivalent lowpass modelling. In this simulation chain, all key functionalities of JOINT are implemented. The simulation chain is designed for link level investigations. A number of channel models are implemented both for the single-SA scenario and the multiple-SA scenario so that the system performance of JOINT can be comprehensively studied. It is shown that in JOINT a duality or a symmetry of the MAI elimination in the UL and in the DL exists. Therefore, the typical noise enhancement going along with the MAI elimination by JD and JT, respectively, is the same in both links. In the simulations also the impact of channel estimation errors on the system performance is studied. In the multiple-SA scenario, due to the existence of the inter-SA MAI, which cannot be suppressed by the algorithms of JD and JT, the system performance in terms of the average bit error rate (BER) and the BER statistics degrades. A collection of simulation results show the potential of JOINT with respect to the improvement of the system performance and the enhancement of the spectrum e±ciency as compared to conventional cellular systems.

In the thesis the task of channel estimation in beyond 3G service area based mobile radio air interfaces is considered. A system concept named Joint Transmission and Detection Integrated Network (JOINT) forms the target platform for the investigations. A single service area of JOINT is considered, in which a number of mobile terminals is supported by a number of radio access points, which are connected to a central unit responsible for the signal processing. The modulation scheme of JOINT is OFDM. Pilot-aided channel estimation is considered, which has to be performed only in the uplink of JOINT, because the duplexing scheme TDD is applied. In this way, the complexity of the mobile terminals is reduced, because they do not need a channel estimator. Based on the signals received by the access points, the central unit estimates the channel transfer functions jointly for all mobile terminals. This is done by resorting to the a priori knowledge of the radiated pilot signals and by applying the technique of joint channel estimation, which is developed in the thesis. The quality of the gained estimates is judged by the degradation of their signal-to-noise ratio as compared to the signal-to-noise ratio of the respective estimates gained in the case of a single mobile terminal radiating its pilots. In the case of single-element receive antennas at the access points, said degradation depends solely on the structure of the applied pilots. In the thesis it is shown how by a proper design of the pilots the SNR degradation can be minimized. Besides using appropriate pilots, the performance of joint channel estimation can be further improved by the inclusion of additional a-priori information in the estimation process. An example of such additional information would be the knowledge of the directional properties of the radio channels. This knowledge can be gained if multi-element antennas are applied at the access points. Further, a-priori channel state information in the form of the power delay profiles of the radio channels can be included in the estimation process by the application of the minimum mean square error estimation principle for joint channel estimation. After having intensively studied the problem of joint channel estimation in JOINT, the thesis rounds itself by considering the impact of the unavoidable channel estimation errors on the performance of data estimation in JOINT. For the case of small channel estimation errors occurring due to the presence of noise at the access points, the performance of joint detection in the uplink and of joint transmission in the downlink of JOINT are investigated based on simulations. For the uplink, which utilizes joint detection, it is shown to which degree the bit error probability increases due to channel estimation errors. For the downlink, which utilizes joint transmission, channel estimation errors lead to an increase of the required transmit power, which can be quantified by the simulation results.

Der Trend zur Verfügbarkeit mehrerer Mobilfunknetze im gleichen Versorgungsgebiet nicht nur unterschiedlicher Operatoren, sondern auch unterschiedlicher Mobilfunkstandards in möglicherweise unterschiedlichen Hierarchieebenen führt zu einer Vielzahl von Koexistenzszenarien, in denen Intersystem- und Interoperator-MAI die einzelnen Mobilfunknetze beeinträchtigen können. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein systematischer Zugang zur Koexistenzproblematik durch die Klassifizierung der MAI erarbeitet. Eine MAI-Art kann dabei mehreren MAI-Klassen angehören. Durch die Einteilung in Klassen wird angestrebt, zum einen die eine MAI-Art beeinflussenden Effekte anhand der Zugehörigkeit zu bestimmten MAI-Klassen besser verstehen zu können. Zum anderen dient die Einteilung der MAI in Klassen zum Abschätzen der Gefährlichkeit einer MAI-Art, über die sich Aussagen machen lassen anhand der Zugehörigkeit zu bestimmten MAI-Klassen. Der Begriff Gefährlichkeit einer MAI-Art schließt neben der mittleren Leistung auch weitere Eigenschaften wie Varianz oder Ursache der MAI ein. Einfache Schlimmstfall-Abschätzungen, wie sie in der Literatur gebräuchlich sind, können leicht zu Fehleinschätzungen der Gefährlichkeit einer MAI-Art führen. Durch die Kenntnis der zugehörigen MAI-Klassen einer MAI-Art wird die Gefahr solcher Fehleinschätzungen erkennbar. Neben den Schlimmstfall-Abschätzungen unter Berücksichtigung der MAI-Klassen werden in der vorliegenden Arbeit auch Simulationen durchgeführt, anhand derer die Abschätzungen verifiziert werden. Dazu werden Werkzeuge in Form von mathematischen Modellen zum Berechnen der Leistung der verschiedenen MAI-Arten unter Einbeziehen der verschiedenen betrachteten Verfahren zum Mindern von MAI erarbeitet. Dabei wird auch ein Konzept zum Vermindern der erforderlichen Rechenleistung vorgestellt. Anhand der Untersuchung der Koexistenz der beispielhaften Mobilfunksysteme WCDMA und TD-CDMA wird gezeigt, daß sich das Auftreten extrem hoher Intersystem- bzw. Interoperator-MAI durch geeignete Wahl der Systemparameter wie Zellradien und Antennenhöhen, sowie durch Verfahren zum Mindern von MAI wie effizienten Leistungsregelungsverfahren und dynamische Kanalzuweisung meist vermeiden läßt. Es ist jedoch essentiell, daß die Koexistenzproblematik bereits in der Phase der Funknetzplanung adäquat berücksichtigt wird. Dabei ist eine Kooperation der beteiligten Operatoren meist nicht notwendig, lediglich besonders kritische Fälle wie Kollokation von BSen verschiedener TDD-Mobilfunknetze z.B. nach dem 3G-Teilstandard TD-CDMA müssen von den Operatoren einvernehmlich vermieden werden. Da bei der Koexistenz von Mobilfunknetzen in Makrozellen aufgrund ihres hohen Zellradius besonders hohe Interoperator-MAI für den Fall der Gleichstrecken-MAI auftreten kann, wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit ein neuartiges Konzept zum Vermindern dieser MAI basierend auf Antennentechniken vorgestellt. Das Konzept zeigt ein vielverspechendes Potential zum Mindern der Interoperator-MAI.