## Preprints (rote Reihe) des Fachbereich Mathematik

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#### Keywords

- average density (3)
- tangent measure distributions (3)
- Brownian motion (2)
- Palm distributions (2)
- average densities (2)
- density distribution (2)
- lacunarity distribution (2)
- occupation measure (2)
- order-two densities (2)
- Algebraic Geometry (1)
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- Hochschild-Homologie (1)
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- Improperly posed problems (1)
- Integral transform (1)
- Kallianpur-Robbins law (1)
- Linear Integral Equations (1)
- Local completeness (1)
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- Palm distribution (1)
- Quasi-identities (1)
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- algebraic geometry (1)
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- fractals (1)
- geometric measure theory (1)
- geometry of measures (1)
- higher order (1)
- hyper-quasi-identities (1)
- hyperquasivarieties (1)
- intersection local time (1)
- invariant theory (1)
- limit models (1)
- locally maximal clone (1)
- log averaging methods (1)
- logarithmic average (1)
- logarithmic averages (1)
- moduli spaces (1)
- non-commutative geometry (1)
- order-three density (1)
- order-two density (1)
- ovoids (1)
- planar Brownian motion (1)
- preservation of relations (1)
- quadratic forms (1)
- quasivarieties (1)
- ratio ergodic theorem (1)
- singular spaces (1)
- singuläre Räume (1)
- strong theorems (1)

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297

In the Banach space co there exists a continuous function of bounded semivariation which does not correspond to a countably additive vector measure. This result is in contrast to the scalar case, and it has consequences for the characterization of scalar-type operators. Besides this negative result we introduce the notion of functions of unconditionally bounded variation which are exactly the generators of countably additive vector measures.

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200

Das sind die Texte der Vorlesungen, die ich im Dezember 1988 - März 1989 an der Universität Kaiserslautern hielt. Die Sektionen 1-4 enthalten Materialien, die in Russisch im Buch [33] und in früheren Arbeiten [27,28] [30-33] publiziert sind.
Sektion 5 enthält neue Ergebnisse, die wir während meines Aufenthaltes in Kaiserslautern in Zusammenarbeit mit Herrn Robert Plato
(TU Berlin) ausarbeiteten (siehe [21,22]). Sektion 6 ist eine Erweiterung der Arbeit [31].

339

Caloric Restriction (CR) is the only intervention proven to retard aging and extend maximum lifespan in mammalians. A possible mechanism for the beneficial effects of CR is that the mild metabolic stress associated with CR induces cells to express stress proteins that increase their resistance to disease processes. In this article we therefore model the retardation of aging by dietary restriction within a mathematical framework. The resulting model comprises food intake, stress proteins, body growth and survival. We successfully applied our model to growth and survival data of mice exposed to different food levels.

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289

We compare different notions of differentiability of a measure along a vector field on a locally convex space. We consider in the \(L^2\)-space of a differentiable measure the analoga of the classical concepts of gradient, divergence and Laplacian (which coincides with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck
operator in the Gaussian case). We use these operators for the extension of the basic results of Malliavin and Stroock on the smoothness of finite dimensional image measures under certain nonsmooth mappings to the case of non-Gaussian measures. The proof of this extension is quite direct and does not use any Chaos-decomposition. Finally, the role of this Laplacian in the
procedure of quantization of anharmonic oscillators is discussed.

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Hyperidentities
(1992)

The concept of a free algebra plays an essential role in universal algebra and in computer science. Manipulation of terms, calculations and the derivation of identities are performed in free algebras. Word problems, normal forms, system of reductions, unification and finite bases of identities are topics in algebra and logic as well as in computer science. A very fruitful point of view is to consider structural properties of free algebras. A.I. Malcev initiated a thorough research of the congruences of free algebras. Henceforth congruence permutable, congruence distributive and congruence modular varieties are
intensively studied. A lot of Malcev type theorems are connected to the congruence lattice of free algebras. Here we consider free algebras as semigroups of compositions of terms and more specific as clones of terms. The properties of these semigroups and clones are adequately described by hyperidentities. Naturally a lot of theorems of "semigroup" or "clone" type can be derived. This topic of research is still in its beginning and therefore a lot öf concepts and results cannot be presented in a final and polished form. Furthermore a lot of problems and questions are open which are of importance for the further development of the theory of hyperidentities.

285

On derived varieties
(1996)

Derived varieties play an essential role in the theory of hyperidentities. In [11] we have shown that derivation diagrams are a useful tool in the analysis of derived algebras and varieties. In this paper this tool is developed further in order to use it for algebraic constructions of derived algebras. Especially the operator \(S\) of subalgebras, \(H\) of homomorphic irnages and \(P\) of direct products are studied. Derived groupoids from the groupoid \(N or (x,y)\) = \(x'\wedge y'\) and from abelian groups are considered. The latter class serves as an example for fluid algebras and varieties. A fluid variety \(V\) has no derived variety as a subvariety and is introduced as a counterpart for solid varieties. Finally we use a property of the commutator of derived algebras in order to show that solvability and nilpotency are preserved under derivation.

284

A polynomial function \(f : L \to L\) of a lattice \(\mathcal{L}\) = \((L; \land, \lor)\) is generated by the identity function id \(id(x)=x\) and the constant functions \(c_a (x) = a\) (for every \(x \in L\)), \(a \in L\) by applying the operations \(\land, \lor\) finitely often. Every polynomial function in one or also in several variables is a monotone function of \(\mathcal{L}\).
If every monotone function of \(\mathcal{L}\)is a polynomial function then \(\mathcal{L}\) is called orderpolynomially complete. In this paper we give a new characterization of finite order-polynomially lattices. We consider doubly irreducible monotone functions and point out their relation to tolerances, especially to central relations. We introduce chain-compatible lattices
and show that they have a non-trivial congruence if they contain a finite interval and an infinite chain. The consequences are two new results. A modular lattice \(\mathcal{L}\) with a finite interval is order-polynomially complete if and only if \(\mathcal{L}\) is finite projective geometry. If \(\mathcal{L}\) is simple modular lattice of infinite length then every nontrivial interval is of infinite length and has the same cardinality as any other nontrivial interval of \(\mathcal{L}\). In the last sections we show the descriptive power of polynomial functions of
lattices and present several applications in geometry.

320

Power-ordered sets are not always lattices. In the case of distributive lattices we give a description by disjoint of chains. Finite power-ordered sets have a polarity. We introduct the leveled lattices and show examples with trivial tolerance. Finally we give a list of Hasse diagrams of power-ordered sets.

307

Seinen Versuch, den Begriff der negativen Größen in die Weltweisheit einzuführen beginnt der neununddreißigjährige Immanuel Kant mit einer grundsätzlichen Erörterung über einen etwaigen Gebrauch, den man in der Weltweisheit von der Mathematik ma-chen kann. Dabei stellt er die These auf, daß Mathematik grundsätzlich nur auf zweierlei Art in die Philosophie eingreifen könne. Eine erste Möglichkeit sieht Kant in der Nachahmung mathematischer Methoden bei der Darstellung von Philosophie, die andere Möglichkeit besteht für ihn in der konkreten Anwendung mathematischer Theorien in der Naturlehre. Die zuerst genannte Möglichkeit beurteilt Kant ausgesprochen negativ; seine Kritik an dem von Comenius zunächst ganz allgemein formulierten und dann von Christian Wolff insbesondere für die Philosophie favorisierten Programm einer Präsentation der Philosophie nach mathematischem Vorbild einer Darstellung more geometrico demonstrata ist hinlänglich bekannt. Die Verwendung von Mathematik in der Naturlehre sieht Kant zwar durchaus positiv; in den Metaphysischen Anfangsgründen der Naturwissenschaft wird er gut zwei Jahrzehnte später sogar jene berühmte Behauptung hinzufügen, daß in jeder besonderen Naturlehre nur so viel eigentliche Wissenschaft angetroffen werden könne, als darin Mathematik anzutreffen ist. Dennoch weist Kant mit aller Deutlichkeit auf die engen Grenzen des Wirkungsbereichs solcher Anwendungen von Mathematik hin, denn seiner Meinung nach würden aber auch nur die zur Naturlehre gehörigen Einsichten von derartigem mathematischem Zugriff profitieren.

309

In einem Beitrag zu Platons Philosophie des Abstiegs schreibt C.F. v. Weizsäcker, er sei "überzeugt, daß die griechische Philosophie, dieses in allen Weltkulturen einzigartige Kunstwerk, ohne das mathematische Paradigma undenkbar gewesen wäre" . Und in seiner berühmten Kant-Vorlesung im WS 1935/36 erklärte M. Heidegger, es sei "kein Zufall, daß die Kritik der reinen Vernunft... ständig von einer Besinnung auf das Wesen des Mathematischen und der Mathematik begleitet sei" . Was hier über Platon und Kant gesagt wird, trifft auf fast alle abendländischen Philosophen von Rang zu: Explizit oder implizit spielt die Mathematik eine entscheidende Rolle für die neue philosophische Konzeption. Welche Gründe sind es, die der Mathematik einen so hohen Stellenwert im Denken der maßgebenden Philosophen sichern? Mit welchen Intentionen und Zielvorstellungen montieren Philosophen seit Platon bis Heidegger, seit Aristoteles bis Bloch immer wieder Aussagen über Mathematik in ihre Philosophie? Weshalb war in den vergangenen zweieinhalb Jahrtausenden keine andere Wissenschaft für die Philosophie so >>frag-würdig<< wie die Mathematik? Die Philosophie hat - dies ist offensichtlich - den Dialog mit der Mathematik immer wieder gesucht. Und wie steht es um das Interesse der Mathematik an einem Dialog mit der Philosophie? In einem äußerst gehaltvollen und auch heute noch sehr lesenswerten Aufsatz Mathematik und Antike stellt der Mathematiker O. Toeplitz 1925 die Frage, "ob einmal im Dasein der Mathematik die Philosophie bestimmend in sie eingegriffen hat, ihre eigentliche definitive Gestalt gebildet hat" ? Eine derartige Initiative aus der Mathematik heraus zum Dialog mit der Philosophie ist kein Einzelfall. Cantor, Hilbert, Weyl, Gödel und Robinson - um nur einige Repräsentanten der neueren Mathematik in Erinnerung zu rufen - haben sich immer wieder um Kontakte mit der Philosophie bemüht.

224

Jede Wissenschaft entfaltet sich in einem Spannungsverhältnis zu ihren Nachbardisziplinen. In diesem Beitrag wird insbesondere das Disziplinenpaar Mathematik-Philosophie in den Blick genommen. Dies geschieht entlang der Leitfrage, ob und gegebenenfalls wie Philosophie auf die Entwicklung und Ausformung der Mathematik Einfluß genommen hat. Dazu wird nach philosophischen Spuren in der Mathematik gefragt, wobei jene historischen Konstellationen bevorzugt betrachtet werden, die eine grundlegende Änderung im Mathematikverständnis erbracht haben. Deshalb gilt das Hauptinteresse dieser Untersuchung dem Verhältnis von Philosophie und Mathematik in der klassischen Antike, bei Kant und in der Gegenwart.

299

We propose a new discretization scheme for solving ill-posed integral equations of the third kind. Combining this scheme with Morozov's discrepancy principle for Landweber iteration we show that for some classes of equations in such method a number of arithmetic operations of smaller order than in collocation method is required to appoximately solve an equation with the same accuracy.

302

An a posteriori stopping rule connected with monitoringthe norm of second residual is introduced forBrakhage's implicit nonstationary iteration method, applied to ill-posed problems involving linear operatorswith closed range. It is also shown that for someclasses of equations with such operators the algorithmconsisting in combination of Brakhage's method withsome new discretization scheme is order optimal in the sense of Information Complexity.

308

In this paper we discuss a special class of regularization methods for solving the satellite gravity gradiometry problem in a spherical framework based on band-limited spherical regularization wavelets. Considering such wavelets as a reesult of a combination of some regularization methods with Galerkin discretization based on the spherical harmonic system we obtain the error estimates of regularized solutions as well as the estimates for regularization parameters and parameters of band-limitation.

322

Integral equations on the half of line are commonly approximated by the finite-section approximation, in which the infinite upper limit is replaced by apositie number called finite-section parameter. In this paper we consider the finite-section approximation for first kind intgral equations which are typically ill-posed and call for regularization. For some classes of such equations corresponding to inverse problems from optics and astronomy we indicate the finite-section parameters that allows to apply standard regularization techniques. Two discretization schemes for the finite-section equations ar also proposed and their efficiency is studied.

242

Efficient algorithms and structural results are presented for median
problems with 2 new facilities including the classical 2-Median problem,
the 2-Median problem with forbidden regions and bicriterial 2-Median
problems. This is the first paper dealing with multi-facility multiobjective location problems. The time complexity of all presented algorithms is O(MlogM), where M is the number of existing facilities.

330

In this paper we study linear ill-posed problems Ax = y in a Hilbert space setting where instead of exact data y noisy data y^delta are given satisfying |y - y^delta| <= delta with known noise level delta. Regularized approximations are obtained by a general regularization scheme where the regularization parameter is chosen from Morozov's discrepancy principle. Assuming the unknown solution belongs to some general source set M we prove that the regularized approximation provides order optimal error bounds on the set M. Our results cover the special case of finitely smoothing operators A and extends recent results for infinitely smoothing operators.

231

We are concerned with a parameter choice strategy for the Tikhonov regularization \((\tilde{A}+\alpha I)\tilde{x}\) = T* \(\tilde{y}\)+ w where \(\tilde{A}\) is a (not necessarily selfadjoint) approximation of T*T and T*\(\tilde y\)+ w is a perturbed form of the (not exactly computed) term T*y. We give conditions for convergence and optimal convergence rates.

313

A class of regularization methods using unbounded regularizing operators is considered for obtaining stable approximate solutions for ill-posed operator equations. With an a posteriori as well as an priori parameter choice strategy, it is shown that the method yields optimal order. Error estimates have also been obtained under stronger assumptions on the the generalized solution. The results of the paper unify and simplify many of the results available in the literature. For example, the optimal results of the paper includes, as particular cases for Tikhonov regularization, the main result of Mair (1994) with an a priori parameter choice and a result of Nair (1999) with an a posteriori parameter choice. Thus the observations of Mair (1994) on Tikhonov regularization of ill-posed problems involving finitely and infinitely smoothing operators is applicable to various other regularization procedures as well. Subsequent results on error estimates include, as special cases, an optimal result of Vainikko (1987) and also recent results of Tautenhahn (1996) in the setting Hilbert scales.

279

It is shown that Tikhonov regularization for ill- posed operator equation
\(Kx = y\) using a possibly unbounded regularizing operator \(L\) yields an orderoptimal algorithm with respect to certain stability set when the regularization parameter is chosen according to the Morozov's discrepancy principle. A more realistic error estimate is derived when the operators \(K\) and \(L\) are related to a Hilbert scale in a suitable manner. The result includes known error estimates for ordininary Tikhonov regularization and also the estimates available under the Hilbert scale approach.

295

Tangent measure distributions are a natural tool to describe the local geometry of arbitrary measures of any dimension. We show that for every measure on a Euclidean space and every s, at almost every point, all s-dimensional tangent measure distributions define statistically self-similar random measures. Consequently, the local geometry of general measures is not different from the local geometry of self-similar sets. We illustrate the strength of this result by showing how it can be used to improve recently proved relations between ordinary and average densities.

293

Tangent measure distributions were introduced by Bandt and Graf as a means to describe the local geometry of self-similar sets generated by iteration of contractive similitudes. In this paper we study the tangent measure distributions of hyperbolic Cantor sets generated by contractive mappings, which are not similitudes. We show that the tangent measure distributions of these sets equipped with either Hausdorff or Gibbs measure are unique almost everywhere and give an explicit formula describing them as probability distributions on the set of limit models of Bedford and Fisher.

319

The Kallianpur-Robbins law describes the long term asymptotic behaviour of the distribution of the occupation measure of a Brownian motion in the plane. In this paper we show that this behaviour can be seen at every typical Brownian path by choosing either a random time or a random scale according to the logarithmic laws of order three. We also prove a ratio ergodic theorem for small scales outside an exceptional set of vanishing logarithmic density of order three.

292

Symmetry properties of average densities and tangent measure distributions of measures on the line
(1995)

Answering a question by Bedford and Fisher we show that for every Radon measure on the line with positive and finite lower and upper densities the one-sided average densities always agree with one half of the circular average densities at almost every point. We infer this result from a more general formula, which involves the notion of a tangent measure distribution introduced by Bandt and Graf. This formula shows that the tangent measure distributions are Palm distributions and define self-similar random measures in the sense of U. Zähle.

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We show that the occupation measure on the path of a planar Brownian motion run for an arbitrary finite time intervalhas an average density of order three with respect to thegauge function t^2 log(1/t). This is a surprising resultas it seems to be the first instance where gauge functions other than t^s and average densities of order higher than two appear naturally. We also show that the average densityof order two fails to exist and prove that the density distributions, or lacunarity distributions, of order threeof the occupation measure of a planar Brownian motion are gamma distributions with parameter 2.

303

We show that the intersection local times \(\mu_p\) on the intersection of \(p\) independent planar Brownian paths have an average density of order three with respect to the gauge function \(r^2\pi\cdot (log(1/r)/\pi)^p\), more precisely, almost surely, \[ \lim\limits_{\varepsilon\downarrow 0} \frac{1}{log |log\ \varepsilon|} \int_\varepsilon^{1/e} \frac{\mu_p(B(x,r))}{r^2\pi\cdot (log(1/r)/\pi)^p} \frac{dr}{r\ log (1/r)} = 2^p \mbox{ at $\mu_p$-almost every $x$.} \] We also show that the lacunarity distributions of \(\mu_p\), at \(\mu_p\)-almost every point, is given as the distribution of the product of \(p\) independent gamma(2)-distributed random variables. The main tools of the proof are a Palm distribution associated with the intersection local time and an approximation theorem of Le Gall.

331

Strict order relations are defined as strict asymmetric and transitive binary relations. For classes of so-called levelled strict orders it is analyzed, under which conditions the endomorphism monoids of two relations coincide; in particular the case of direct sums of strict antichains is studied. Further, it is shown that these orders differ in their sets of binary order preserving functions.

332

In recent years a considerable attention was paid to an investigation of finite orders relative to different properties of their isotone functions [2,3]. Strict order relations are defined as strict asymmetric and transitive binary relations. Some algebraic properties of strict orders were already studied in [6]. For the class K of so-called 2-series strict orders we describe the partially ordered set EndK of endomorphism monoids, ordered by inclusion. It is obtained that EndK possesses a least element and in most cases defines a Boolean algebra. Moreover, every 2-series strict order is determined by its n-ary isotone functions for some natural number n.

223

Let \(a_1, i:=1,\dots,m\), be an i.i.d. sequence taking values in \(\mathbb{R}^n\), whose convex hull is interpreted as a stochastic polyhedron \(P\). For a special class of random variables, which decompose additively relative to their boundary simplices, eg. the volume of \(P\), simple integral representations of its first two moments are given in case of rotationally symmetric distributions in order to facilitate estimations of variances or to quantify large deviations from the mean.

276

Let \(a_1,\dots,a_n\) be independent random points in \(\mathbb{R}^d\) spherically symmetrically but not necessarily identically distributed. Let \(X\) be the random polytope generated as the convex hull of \(a_1,\dots,a_n\) and for any \(k\)-dimensional subspace \(L\subseteq \mathbb{R}^d\) let \(Vol_L(X) :=\lambda_k(L\cap X)\) be the volume of \(X\cap L\) with respect to the \(k\)-dimensional Lebesgue measure \(\lambda_k, k=1,\dots,d\). Furthermore, let \(F^{(i)}\)(t):= \(\bf{Pr}\) \(\)(\(\Vert a_i \|_2\leq t\)),
\(t \in \mathbb{R}^+_0\) , be the radial distribution function of \(a_i\). We prove that the expectation
functional \(\Phi_L\)(\(F^{(1)}, F^{(2)},\dots, F^{(n)})\) := \(E(Vol_L(X)\)) is strictly decreasing in
each argument, i.e. if \(F^{(i)}(t) \le G^{(i)}(t)t\), \(t \in {R}^+_0\), but \(F^{(i)} \not\equiv G^{(i)}\), we show \(\Phi\) \((\dots, F^{(i)}, \dots\)) > \(\Phi(\dots,G^{(i)},\dots\)). The proof is clone in the more general framework
of continuous and \(f\)- additive polytope functionals.

245

Let \(A\):= {\(a_i\mid i= 1,\dots,m\)} be an i.i.d. random sample in (\mathbb{R}^n\), which we consider a random polyhedron, either as the convex hull of the \(a_i\) or as the intersection of halfspaces {\(x \mid a ^T_i x\leq 1\)}. We introduce a class of polyhedral functionals we will call "additive-type functionals", which covers a number of polyhedral functionals discussed in different mathematical fields, where the emphasis in our contribution will be on those, which arise in linear optimization theory. The class of additive-type functionals is a suitable setting in order to unify and to simplify the asymptotic probabilistic analysis of first and second moments of polyhedral functionals. We provide examples of asymptotic results on expectations and on variances.

262

Let \(a_1,\dots,a_m\) be i.i .d. vectors uniform on the unit sphere in \(\mathbb{R}^n\), \(m\ge n\ge3\) and let \(X\):= {\(x \in \mathbb{R}^n \mid a ^T_i x\leq 1\)} be the random polyhedron generated by. Furthermore, for linearly independent vectors \(u\), \(\bar u\) in \(\mathbb{R}^n\), let \(S_{u, \bar u}(X)\) be the number of shadow vertices of \(X\) in \(span (u, \bar u\)). The paper provides an asymptotic expansion of the expectation value \(E (S_{u, \bar u})\) for fixed \(n\) and \(m\to\infty\). The first terms of the expansion are given explicitly. Our investigation of \(E (S_{u, \bar u})\) is closely connected to Borgwardt's probabilistic analysis of the shadow vertex algorithm - a parametric variant of the simplex algorithm. We obtain an improved asymptotic upper bound for the number of pivot steps required by the shadow vertex algorithm for uniformly on the sphere distributed data.

250

Let (\(a_i)_{i\in \bf{N}}\) be a sequence of identically and independently distributed random vectors drawn from the \(d\)-dimensional unit ball \(B^d\)and let \(X_n\):= convhull \((a_1,\dots,a_n\)) be the random polytope generated by \((a_1,\dots\,a_n)\). Furthermore, let \(\Delta (X_n)\) : = (Vol \(B^d\) \ \(X_n\)) be the deviation of the polytope's volume from the volume of the ball. For uniformly distributed \(a_i\) and \(d\ge2\), we prove that tbe limiting distribution of \(\frac{\Delta (X_n)} {E(\Delta (X_n))}\) for \(n\to\infty\) satisfies a 0-1-law. Especially, we provide precise information about the asymptotic behaviour of the variance of \(\Delta (X_n\)). We deliver analogous results for spherically symmetric distributions in \(B^d\) with regularly varying tail.

282

Let \(a_1,\dots,a_m\) be independent random points in \(\mathbb{R}^n\) that are independent and identically distributed spherically symmetrical in \(\mathbb{R}^n\). Moreover, let \(X\) be the random polytope generated as the convex hull of \(a_1,\dots,a_m\) and let \(L_k\) be an arbitrary \(k\)-dimensional
subspace of \(\mathbb{R}^n\) with \(2\le k\le n-1\). Let \(X_k\) be the orthogonal projection image of \(X\) in \(L_k\). We call those vertices of \(X\), whose projection images in \(L_k\) are vertices of \(X_k\)as well shadow vertices of \(X\) with respect to the subspace \(L_k\) . We derive a distribution independent sharp upper bound for the expected number of shadow vertices of \(X\) in \(L_k\).

233

Let \(a_i i:= 1,\dots,m.\) be an i.i.d. sequence taking values in \(\mathbb{R}^n\). Whose convex hull is interpreted as a stochastic polyhedron \(P\). For a special class of random variables which decompose additively relative to their boundary simplices, eg. the volume of \(P\), integral representations of their first two moments are given which lead to asymptotic estimations of variances for special "additive variables" known from stochastic approximation theory in case of rotationally symmetric distributions.

248

The article provides an asymptotic probabilistic analysis of the variance of the number of pivot steps required by phase II of the "shadow vertex algorithm" - a parametric variant of the simplex algorithm, which has been proposed by Borgwardt [1] . The analysis is done for data which satisfy a rotationally
invariant distribution law in the \(n\)-dimensional unit ball.

238

Despite their very good empirical performance most of the simplex algorithm's variants require exponentially many pivot steps in terms of the problem dimensions of the given linear programming problem (LPP) in worst-case situtation. The first to explain the large gap between practical experience and the disappointing worst-case was Borgwardt (1982a,b), who could prove polynomiality on tbe average for a certain variant of the algorithm-the " Schatteneckenalgorithmus (shadow vertex algorithm)" - using a stochastic problem simulation.

304

It is proved that if a finite non-trivial quasi-order is nota linear order then there exist continuum many clones, whichconsist of functions preserving the quasi-order and containall unary functions with this property. It is shown that, fora linear order on a three-element set, there are only 7 suchclones

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203

The notion of Q-Gorenstein smoothings has been introduced by Kollar. ([KoJ], 6.2.3). This notion is essential for formulating Kollar's conjectures on smoothing components for rational surface singularities. He conjectures, loosely speaking, that every smoothing of a rational surface singularity can be obtained by blowing down a deformation of a partial resolution, this partial resolution having the property (among others) that the singularities occuring on it all have qG-smoothings. (For more details and precise statements see [Ko], ch. 6.). It is therefore of interest to construct singularities having qG-smoothings.

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275

246

Max ordering (MO) optimization is introduced as tool for modelling production
planning with unknown lot sizes and in scenario modelling. In MO optimization a feasible solution set \(X\) and, for each \(x\in X, Q\) individual objective functions \(f_1(x),\dots,f_Q(x)\) are given. The max ordering objective
\(g(x):=max\) {\(f_1(x),\dots,f_Q(x)\)} is then minimized over all \(x\in X\).
The paper discusses complexity results and describes exact and approximative
algorithms for the case where \(X\) is the solution set of combinatorial
optimization problems and network flow problems, respectively.

277

A convergence rate is established for nonstationary iterated Tikhonov regularization, applied to ill-posed problems involving closed, densely defined linear operators, under general conditions on the iteration parameters. lt is also shown that an order-optimal accuracy is attained when a certain a posteriori stopping rule is used to determine the iteration number.

283

The first part of this paper studies a Levenberg-Marquardt scheme for nonlinear inverse problems where the corresponding Lagrange (or regularization) parameter is chosen from an inexact Newton strategy. While the convergence analysis of standard implementations based on trust region strategies always requires the invertibility of the Fréchet derivative of the nonlinear operator at the exact solution, the new Levenberg-Marquardt scheme is suitable for ill-posed problems as long as the Taylor remainder is of second order in the interpolating metric between the range and dornain
topologies. Estimates of this type are established in the second part of the paper for ill-posed parameter identification problems arising in inverse groundwater hydrology. Both, transient and steady state data are investigated. Finally, the numerical performance of the new Levenberg-Marquardt scheme is
studied and compared to a usual implementation on a realistic but synthetic 2D model problem from the engineering literature.

280

This paper develops truncated Newton methods as an appropriate tool for nonlinear inverse problems which are ill-posed in the sense of Hadamard. In each Newton step an approximate solution for the linearized problem is computed with the conjugate gradient method as an inner iteration. The conjugate gradient iteration is terminated when the residual has been reduced to a prescribed percentage. Under certain assumptions on the nonlinear operator it is shown that the algorithm converges and is stable if the discrepancy principle is used to terminate the outer iteration.
These assumptions are fulfilled , e.g., for the inverse problem of identifying the diffusion coefficient in a parabolic differential equation from distributed data.

274

This paper investigates the convergence of the Lanczos method for computing the smallest eigenpair of a selfadjoint elliptic differential operator via inverse iteration (without shifts).
Superlinear convergence rates are established, and their sharpness is investigated for a simple model problem. These results are illustrated numerically for a more difficult problem.

239

We investigate two versions of multiple objective minimum spanning tree
problems defined on a network with vectorial weights. First, we want to minimize the maximum of Q linear objective functions taken over the set of all spanning trees (max linear spanning tree problem ML-ST). Secondly, we look for efficient spanning trees (multi criteria spanning tree problem MC-ST). Problem ML-ST is shown to be NP-complete. An exact algorithm which is based on ranking is presented. The procedure can also be used as an approximation scheme. For solving the bicriterion MC-ST, which in the worst case may have an exponential number of efficient trees, a two-phase procedure is presented. Based on the computation of extremal efficient spanning trees we use neighbourhood search to determine a sequence of solutions with the property that the distance
between two consecutive solutions is less than a given accuracy.

236

Es wird anhand von Beispielen, an denen der Autor in der Vergangenheit gearbeitet hat, gezeigt, wie man Modelle der exakten Naturwissenschaften auf wirtschaftliche Probleme
anwenden kann. Insbesondere wird diskutiert, wo Grenzen dieser Übertragbarkeit liegen. Die Arbeit ist eine Zusammenfassung eines Vortrags, der im SS 1992 im Rahmen des Studium Generale an der Universität Kaiserslautern gehalten wurde.

243

Given Q different objective functions, three types of single-facility problems
are considered: Lexicographic, pareto and max ordering problems. After discussing the interrelation between the problem types, a complete characterization of lexicographic locations and some instances of pareto and max ordering locations is given. The characterizations result in efficient solution algorithms for finding these locations. The paper relies heavily on the theory of restricted locations developed by the same authors, and can be further extended, for instance, to multifacility problems with several objectives. The proposed approach is more general than previously published results on multicriteria planar location problems and is particulary suited for modelling real-world problems.

227

Facility location problems in the plane are among the most widely used tools of Mathematical Programming in modeling real-world problems. In many of these problems restrictions have to be considered which correspond to regions in which a placement of new locations is forbidden. We consider center and median problems where the forbidden set is
a union of pairwise disjoint convex sets. As applications we discuss the assembly of printed circuit boards, obnoxious facility location and the location of emergency facilities.

208

In this paper we continue the study of p - groups G of square order \(p^{2n}\) and investigate the existence of partial congruence partitions (sets of mutually disjoint subgroups of order \(p^n\)) in G. Partial congruence partitions are used to construct translation nets and partial difference sets, two objects studied extensively in finite geometries and combinatorics. We prove that the maximal number of mutually disjoint subgroups of order \(p^n\) in a group G of order \(p^{2n}\) cannot be more than \((p^{n-1}-1)(p-1)^{-1}\) provided that \(n\ge4\)and that G is not elementary abelian. This improves a result in [6] and as we do not distinguish the cases p=2 and p odd in the present paper, we also have a generalization of D. FROHARDT' s theorem on 2 - groups in [4]. Furthermore we study groups of order \(p^6\). We can show that for each odd prime number, there exist exactly four nonisomorphic groups which contain at least p+2 mutually disjoint subgroups of order \(p^3\). Again, as we do not distinguish between the even and the odd case in advance, we in particular obtain
D. GLUCK' s and A. P. SPRAGUE' s classification of groups of order 64 which contain at least 4 mutually disjoint subgroups of order 8 in [5] and [13] respectively.

232

We show that the different module structures of GF(\(q^m\)) arising from the intermediate fields of GF(\(q^m\))and GF(q) can be studied simultaneously with the help of some basic properties of cyclotomic polynomials. We use this ideas to give a detailed and constructive proof of the most difficult part of a Theorem of D. Blessenohl and K. Johnsen (1986), i.e., the existence of elements v in GF(\(q^m\)) over GF(q) which generate normal bases over any intermediate field of GF(\(q^m\)) and GF(q), provided that m is a prime power. Such elements are called completely free in GF(\(q^m\)) over GF(q). We develop a recursive formula for the number of completely free elements in GF(\(q^m\)) over GF(q) in the case where m is a prime power. Some of the results can be generalized to finite cyclic Galois extensions
over arbitrary fields.

206

In this paper the existence of translation transversal designs which is equivalent to the existence of certain particular partitions in finite groups is studied. All considerations are based on the fact that the particular component of such a partition (the component representing the point classes of the corresponding design) is a normal subgroup of the translation group. With regard to groups admitting an (s,k,\(\lambda\))-partiton, on one hand the already known families of such groups are determined without using R. BAER's, 0.H.KEGEL's and M. SUZUKI' s classification of finite groups with partition and on the other hand some new results on the special structure of p - groups are proved. Furthermore, the existence of a series of nonabelian p - groups of odd order which can be represented as translation groups of certain (s,k,1) - translation transversal designs is shown; moreover, the translation groups are normal subgroups of collineation groups acting regularly on the set of flags of the same designs.

312

Vigenere-Verschlüsselung
(1999)

300

286

An analogue of the classical Riemann-Siegel integral formula for Dirichlet series associated to cusp forms is developed. As an application of the formula, we give a comparatively simple proof of the approximate functional equation for this type of Dirichlet series.