## Berichte des Fraunhofer-Instituts für Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik (ITWM Report)

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- 187
- Variational multiscale Finite Element Method for flows in highly porous media (2010)
- We present a two-scale finite element method for solving Brinkman’s and Darcy’s equations. These systems of equations model fluid flows in highly porous and porous media, respectively. The method uses a recently proposed discontinuous Galerkin FEM for Stokes’ equations byWang and Ye and the concept of subgrid approximation developed by Arbogast for Darcy’s equations. In order to reduce the “resonance error” and to ensure convergence to the global fine solution the algorithm is put in the framework of alternating Schwarz iterations using subdomains around the coarse-grid boundaries. The discussed algorithms are implemented using the Deal.II finite element library and are tested on a number of model problems.

- 120
- On upscaling heat conductivity for a class of industrial problems (2007)
- Calculating effective heat conductivity for a class of industrial problems is discussed. The considered composite materials are glass and metal foams, fibrous materials, and the like, used in isolation or in advanced heat exchangers. These materials are characterized by a very complex internal structure, by low volume fraction of the higher conductive material (glass or metal), and by a large volume fraction of the air. The homogenization theory (when applicable), allows to calculate the effective heat conductivity of composite media by postprocessing the solution of special cell problems for representative elementary volumes (REV). Different formulations of such cell problems are considered and compared here. Furthermore, the size of the REV is studied numerically for some typical materials. Fast algorithms for solving the cell problems for this class of problems, are presented and discussed.

- 121
- On two-level preconditioners for flow in porous media (2007)
- Two-level domain decomposition preconditioner for 3D flows in anisotropic highly heterogeneous porous media is presented. Accurate finite volume discretization based on multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) for 3D pressure equation is employed to account for the jump discontinuities of full permeability tensors. DD/MG type preconditioner for above mentioned problem is developed. Coarse scale operator is obtained from a homogenization type procedure. The influence of the overlapping as well as the influence of the smoother and cell problem formulation is studied. Results from numerical experiments are presented and discussed.

- 62
- On the Performance of Certain Iterative Solvers for Coupled Systems Arising in Discretization of Non-Newtonian Flow Equations (2004)
- Iterative solution of large scale systems arising after discretization and linearization of the unsteady non-Newtonian Navier–Stokes equations is studied. cross WLF model is used to account for the non-Newtonian behavior of the fluid. Finite volume method is used to discretize the governing system of PDEs. Viscosity is treated explicitely (e.g., it is taken from the previous time step), while other terms are treated implicitly. Different preconditioners (block–diagonal, block–triangular, relaxed incomplete LU factorization, etc.) are used in conjunction with advanced iterative methods, namely, BiCGStab, CGS, GMRES. The action of the preconditioner in fact requires inverting different blocks. For this purpose, in addition to preconditioned BiCGStab, CGS, GMRES, we use also algebraic multigrid method (AMG). The performance of the iterative solvers is studied with respect to the number of unknowns, characteristic velocity in the basic flow, time step, deviation from Newtonian behavior, etc. Results from numerical experiments are presented and discussed.

- 114
- On parallel numerical algorithms for simulating industrial filtration problems (2007)
- The performance of oil filters used in the automotive industry can be significantly improved, especially when computer simulation is an essential component of the design process. In this paper, we consider parallel numerical algorithms for solving mathematical models describing the process of filtration, filtering out solid particles from liquid oil. The Navier-Stokes-Brinkmann system of equations is used to describe the laminar flow of incompressible isothermal oil. The space discretization in the complicated filter geometry is based on the finite-volume method. Special care is taken for an accurate approximation of velocity and pressure on the interface between the fluid and the porous media. The time discretization used here is a proper modification of the fractional time step discretization (cf. Chorin scheme) of the Navier-Stokes equations, where the Brinkmann term is considered at both, prediction and correction substeps. A data decomposition method is used to develop a parallel algorithm, where the domain is distributed among processors by using a structured reference grid. The MPI library is used to implement the data communication part of the algorithm. A theoretical model is proposed for the estimation of the complexity of the given parallel algorithm and a scalability analysis is done on the basis of this model. Results of computational experiments are presented, and the accuracy and efficiency of the parallel algorithm is tested on real industrial geometries.

- 118
- On numerical upscaling for flows in heterogeneous porous media (2007)
- A numerical upscaling approach, NU, for solving multiscale elliptic problems is discussed. The main components of this NU are: i) local solve of auxil- iary problems in grid blocks and formal upscaling of the obtained re sults to build a coarse scale equation; ii) global solve of the upscaled coarse scale equation; and iii) reconstruction of a fine scale solution by solving local block problems on a dual coarse grid. By its structure NU is similar to other methods for solving multiscale elliptic problems, such as the multiscale finite element method, the multiscale mixed finite element method, the numerical subgrid upscaling method, heterogeneous multiscale method, and the multiscale finite volume method. The difference with those methods is in the way the coarse scale equation is build and solved, and in the way the fine scale solution is reconstructed. Essential components of the presented here NU approach are the formal homogenization in the coarse blocks and the usage of so called multipoint flux approximation method, MPFA. Unlike the usual usage as MPFA as a discretiza- tion method for single scale elliptic problems with tensor discontinuous coefficients, we consider its usage as a part of a numerical upscaling approach. The main aim of this paper is to compare NU with the MsFEM. In particular, it is shown that the resonance effect, which limits the application of the Multiscale FEM, does not appear, or it is significantly relaxed, when the presented here numerical upscaling approach is applied.

- 66
- On numerical solution of 1-D poroelasticity equations in a multilayered domain (2004)
- In soil mechanics assumption of only vertical subsidence is often invoked and this leads to the one-dimensional model of poroelasticity. The classical model of linear poroelasticity is obtained by Biot [1], detailed derivation can be found e.g., in [2]. This model is applicable also to modelling certain processes in geomechanics, hydrogeology, petroleum engineering (see, e.g., [3, 8], in biomechanics (e.g., [9, 10]), in filtration (e.g., filter cake formation, see [15, 16, 17]), in paper manufacturing (e.g., [11, 12]), in printing (e.g., [13]), etc. Finite element and finite difference methods were applied by many authors for numerical solution of the Biot system of PDEs, see e.g. [3, 4, 5] and references therein. However, as it is wellknown, the standard FEM and FDM methods are subject to numerical instabilities at the first time steps. To avoid this, discretization on staggered grid was suggested in [4, 5]. A single layer deformable porous medium was considered there. This paper can be viewed as extension of [4, 5] to the case of multilayered deformable porous media. A finite volume discretization to the interface problem for the classical one-dimensional Biot model of consolidation process is applied here. Following assumptions are supposed to be valid: each of the porous layers is composed of incompressible solid matrix, it is homogeneous and isotropic. Furthermore, one of two following assumptions is valid: porous medium is not completely saturated and ﬂuid is incompressible or porous medium is completely saturated and fluid is slightly compressible. The reminder of the paper is organised as follows. Next section presents the mathematical model. Third section is devoted to the dicsretization of the continuous problem. Fourth section contains the results from the numerical experiments.

- 51
- On Numerical Simulation of Flow Through Oil Filters (2003)
- This paper concerns numerical simulation of flow through oil filters. Oil filters consist of filter housing (filter box), and a porous filtering medium, which completely separates the inlet from the outlet. We discuss mathematical models, describing coupled flows in the pure liquid subregions and in the porous filter media, as well as interface conditions between them. Further, we reformulate the problem in fictitious regions method manner, and discuss peculiarities of the numerical algorithm in solving the coupled system. Next, we show numerical results, validating the model and the algorithm. Finally, we present results from simulation of 3-D oil flow through a real car filter.

- 63
- On Modelling and Simulation of Different Regimes for Liquid Polymer Moulding (2004)
- In this paper we consider numerical algorithms for solving a system of nonlinear PDEs arising in modeling of liquid polymer injection. We investigate the particular case when a porous preform is located within the mould, so that the liquid polymer flows through a porous medium during the filling stage. The nonlinearity of the governing system of PDEs is due to the non-Newtonian behavior of the polymer, as well as due to the moving free boundary. The latter is related to the penetration front and a Stefan type problem is formulated to account for it. A finite-volume method is used to approximate the given differential problem. Results of numerical experiments are presented. We also solve an inverse problem and present algorithms for the determination of the absolute preform permeability coefficient in the case when the velocity of the penetration front is known from measurements. In both cases (direct and inverse problems) we emphasize on the specifics related to the non-Newtonian behavior of the polymer. For completeness, we discuss also the Newtonian case. Results of some experimental measurements are presented and discussed.

- 70
- On Efficent Simulation of Non-Newtonian Flow in Saturated Porous Media with a Multigrid Adaptive Refinement Solver (2005)
- Flow of non-Newtonian fluid in saturated porous media can be described by the continuity equation and the generalized Darcy law. Efficient solution of the resulting second order nonlinear elliptic equation is discussed here. The equation is discretized by a finite volume method on a cell-centered grid. Local adaptive refinement of the grid is introduced in order to reduce the number of unknowns. A special implementation approach is used, which allows us to perform unstructured local refinement in conjunction with the finite volume discretization. Two residual based error indicators are exploited in the adaptive refinement criterion. Second order accurate discretization of the fluxes on the interfaces between refined and non-refined subdomains, as well as on the boundaries with Dirichlet boundary condition, are presented here, as an essential part of the accurate and efficient algorithm. A nonlinear full approximation storage multigrid algorithm is developed especially for the above described composite (coarse plus locally refined) grid approach. In particular, second order approximation of the fluxes around interfaces is a result of a quadratic approximation of slave nodes in the multigrid - adaptive refinement (MG-AR) algorithm. Results from numerical solution of various academic and practice-induced problems are presented and the performance of the solver is discussed.