## SEKI Report

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#### Keywords

- Knowledge acquisition (3)
- Deduction (2)
- HOT (2)
- MOLTKE-Projekt (2)
- Term rewriting systems (2)
- Wissensakquisition (2)
- analogy (2)
- combined systems with sha (2)
- confluence (2)
- disjoint union (2)

- 93,2
- Extending automatic theorem proving by planning (1993)
- A general concept for combining planning with automatic theorem provingis introduced. From this a system architecture based on the notion of planningtrees, methods and sensors is developed. It is illustrated by examples taken fromthe domain of sorting algorithms.

- 93,3
- Canonical Conditional Rewrite Systems Containing Extra Variables (1993)
- We study deterministic conditional rewrite systems, i.e. conditional rewrite systemswhere the extra variables are not totally free but 'input bounded'. If such a systemR is quasi-reductive then !R is decidable and terminating. We develop a critical paircriterion to prove confluence if R is quasi-reductive and strongly deterministic. In thiscase we prove that R is logical, i.e./!R==R holds. We apply our results to proveHorn clause programs to be uniquely terminating.This research was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, SFB 314, Project D4

- 93,9
- Relating Innermost, Weak, Uniform and Modular Termination of Term Rewriting Systems (1993)
- We investigate restricted termination and confluence properties of term rewritADing systems, in particular weak termination and innermost termination, and theirinterrelation. New criteria are provided which are sufficient for the equivalenceof innermost / weak termination and uniform termination of term rewriting sysADtems. These criteria provide interesting possibilities to infer completeness, i.e.termination plus confluence, from restricted termination and confluence properADties.Using these basic results we are also able to prove some new results aboutmodular termination of rewriting. In particular, we show that termination ismodular for some classes of innermost terminating and locally confluent termrewriting systems, namely for nonADoverlapping and even for overlay systems. Asan easy consequence this latter result also entails a simplified proof of the factthat completeness is a decomposable property of soADcalled constructor systems.Furthermore we show how to obtain similar results for even more general cases of(nonADdisjoint) combined systems with shared constructors and of certain hierarADchical combinations of systems with constructors. Interestingly, these modularityresults are obtained by means of a proof technique which itself constitutes a modADular approach.

- 93,18
- On the Complexity of Simplification Orderings (1993)
- Various methods for proving the termination of term rewriting systems havebeen suggested. Most of them are based on the notion of simplification ordering.In this paper, the theoretical time complexities (of the worst cases) of a collectionof well-known simplification orderings will be presented.

- 93,11
- Informal Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of "GI-Fachgruppe Deduktionssysteme" (1993)
- This report contains a collection of abstracts for talks given at the "Deduktionstreffen" held at Kaiserslautern, October 6 to 8, 1993. The topics of the talks range from theoretical aspects of term rewriting systems and higher order resolution to descriptions of practical proof systems in various applications. They are grouped together according the following classification: Distribution and Combination of Theorem Provers, Termination, Completion, Functional Programs, Inductive Theorem Proving, Automatic Theorem Proving, Proof Presentation. The Deduktionstreffen is the annual meeting of the Fachgruppe Deduktionssysteme in the Gesellschaft für Informatik (GI), the German association for computer science.

- 94,3
- An alternative for handling AC (1994)
- A method for efficiently handling associativity and commutativity (AC) in implementations of (equational) theorem provers without incorporating AC as an underlying theory will be presented. The key of substantial efficiency gains resides in a more suitable representation of permutation-equations (such as f(x,f(y,z))=f(y,f(z,x)) for instance). By representing these permutation-equations through permutations in the mathematical sense (i.e. bijective func- tions :{1,..,n} {1,..,n}), and by applying adapted and specialized inference rules, we can cope more appropriately with the fact that permutation-equations are playing a particular role. Moreover, a number of restrictions concerning application and generation of permuta- tion-equations can be found that would not be possible in this extent when treating permu- tation-equations just like any other equation. Thus, further improvements in efficiency can be achieved.

- 94,5
- Analysis and Representation of Equational Proofs Generated by a Distributed Completion Based Proof System (1994)
- Automatic proof systems are becoming more and more powerful.However, the proofs generated by these systems are not met withwide acceptance, because they are presented in a way inappropriatefor human understanding.In this paper we pursue two different, but related, aims. First wedescribe methods to structure and transform equational proofs in away that they conform to human reading conventions. We developalgorithms to impose a hierarchical structure on proof protocols fromcompletion based proof systems and to generate equational chainsfrom them.Our second aim is to demonstrate the difficulties of obtaining suchprotocols from distributed proof systems and to present our solutionto these problems for provers using the TEAMWORK method. Wealso show that proof systems using this method can give considerablehelp in structuring the proof listing in a way analogous to humanbehaviour.In addition to theoretical results we also include descriptions onalgorithms, implementation notes, examples and data on a variety ofexamples.

- 95,2
- Learning proof heuristics by adapting parameters (1995)
- We present a method for learning heuristics employed by an automated proverto control its inference machine. The hub of the method is the adaptation of theparameters of a heuristic. Adaptation is accomplished by a genetic algorithm.The necessary guidance during the learning process is provided by a proof prob-lem and a proof of it found in the past. The objective of learning consists infinding a parameter configuration that avoids redundant effort w.r.t. this prob-lem and the particular proof of it. A heuristic learned (adapted) this way canthen be applied profitably when searching for a proof of a similar problem. So,our method can be used to train a proof heuristic for a class of similar problems.A number of experiments (with an automated prover for purely equationallogic) show that adapted heuristics are not only able to speed up enormously thesearch for the proof learned during adaptation. They also reduce redundancies inthe search for proofs of similar theorems. This not only results in finding proofsfaster, but also enables the prover to prove theorems it could not handle before.

- 95,8
- A Note on a Parameterized Version of the Well-Founded Induction Principle (1995)
- The well-known and powerful proof principle by well-founded induction says that for verifying \(\forall x : P (x)\) for some property \(P\) it suffices to show \(\forall x : [[\forall y < x :P (y)] \Rightarrow P (x)] \) , provided \(<\) is a well-founded partial ordering on the domainof interest. Here we investigate a more general formulation of this proof principlewhich allows for a kind of parameterized partial orderings \(<_x\) which naturallyarises in some cases. More precisely, we develop conditions under which theparameterized proof principle \(\forall x : [[\forall y <_x x : P (y)] \Rightarrow P (x)]\) is sound in thesense that \(\forall x : [[\forall y <_x x : P (y)] \Rightarrow P (x)] \Rightarrow \forall x : P (x)\) holds, and givecounterexamples demonstrating that these conditions are indeed essential.

- 95,9
- Syntactic Confluence Criteria for Positive/Negative-Conditional Term Rewriting Systems (1995)
- We study the combination of the following already known ideas for showing confluence ofunconditional or conditional term rewriting systems into practically more useful confluence criteria forconditional systems: Our syntactic separation into constructor and non-constructor symbols, Huet's intro-duction and Toyama's generalization of parallel closedness for non-noetherian unconditional systems, theuse of shallow confluence for proving confluence of noetherian and non-noetherian conditional systems, theidea that certain kinds of limited confluence can be assumed for checking the fulfilledness or infeasibilityof the conditions of conditional critical pairs, and the idea that (when termination is given) only primesuperpositions have to be considered and certain normalization restrictions can be applied for the sub-stitutions fulfilling the conditions of conditional critical pairs. Besides combining and improving alreadyknown methods, we present the following new ideas and results: We strengthen the criterion for overlayjoinable noetherian systems, and, by using the expressiveness of our syntactic separation into constructorand non-constructor symbols, we are able to present criteria for level confluence that are not criteria forshallow confluence actually and also able to weaken the severe requirement of normality (stiffened withleft-linearity) in the criteria for shallow confluence of noetherian and non-noetherian conditional systems tothe easily satisfied requirement of quasi-normality. Finally, the whole paper also gives a practically usefuloverview of the syntactic means for showing confluence of conditional term rewriting systems.