This tutorial describes how to accurately measure signal power using the FFT. The different effects that introduce errors during FFT processing are described and it is explained how they can be avoided or compensated.
Whole-body vibrations (WBV) have adverse effects on ride comfort and human health. Suspension seats have an important influence on the WBV severity. In this study, WBV were measured on a medium-sized compact wheel loader (CWL) in its typical operations. The effect of short-term exposure to the WBV on the ride comfort was evaluated according to ISO 2631-1:1985 and ISO 2631-1:1997. ISO 2631-1:1997 and ISO 2631-5:2004 were adopted to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure to the WBV on the human health. Reasons for the different evaluation results obtained according to ISO 2631-1:1997 and ISO 2631-5:2004 were explained in this study. The WBV measurements were carried out in cases where the driver wore a lap belt or a four-point seat harness and in the case where the driver did not wear any safety belt. The seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT) and the seat transmissibility in the frequency domain in these three cases were analyzed to investigate the effect of a safety belt on the seat transmissibility. Seat tests were performed on a multi-axis shaking table in laboratory to study the dynamic behavior of a suspension seat under the vibration excitations measured on the CWL. The WBV intensity was reduced by optimizing the vertical and the longitudinal seat suspension systems with the help of computational simulations. For the optimization multi-body models of the seat-dummy system in the laboratory seat tests and the seat-driver system in the field vibration measurements were built and validated.
The recently established technologies in the areas of distributed measurement and intelligent
information processing systems, e.g., Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), Ambient
Intelligence/Ambient Assisted Living systems (AmI/AAL), the Internet of Things
(IoT), and Industry 4.0 have increased the demand for the development of intelligent
integrated multi-sensory systems as to serve rapid growing markets [1, 2]. These increase
the significance of complex measurement systems, that incorporate numerous advanced
methodological implementations including electronics circuit, signal processing,
and multi-sensory information fusion. In particular, in multi-sensory cognition applications,
to design such systems, the skill-required tasks, e.g., method selection, parameterization,
model analysis, and processing chain construction are elaborated with immense
effort, which conventionally are done manually by the expert designer. Moreover, the
strong technological competition imposes even more complicated design problems with
multiple constraints, e.g., cost, speed, power consumption,
exibility, and reliability.
Thus, the conventional human expert based design approach may not be able to cope
with the increasing demand in numbers, complexity, and diversity. To alleviate the issue,
the design automation approach has been the topic for numerous research works [3-14]
and has been commercialized to several products [15-18]. Additionally, the dynamic
adaptation of intelligent multi-sensor systems is the potential solution for developing
dependable and robust systems. Intrinsic evolution approach and self-x properties ,
which include self-monitoring, -calibrating/trimming, and -healing/repairing, are among
the best candidates for the issue. Motivated from the ongoing research trends and based
on the background of our research work [12, 13] among the pioneers in this topic, the
research work of the thesis contributes to the design automation of intelligent integrated
In this research work, the Design Automation for Intelligent COgnitive system with self-
X properties, the DAICOX, architecture is presented with the aim of tackling the design
effort and to providing high quality and robust solutions for multi-sensor intelligent
systems. Therefore, the DAICOX architecture is conceived with the defined goals as
Perform front to back complete processing chain design with automated method
selection and parameterization,
Provide a rich choice of pattern recognition methods to the design method pool,
Associate design information via interactive user interface and visualization along
with intuitive visual programming,
Deliver high quality solutions outperforming conventional approaches by using
Gain the adaptability, reliability and robustness of designed solutions with self-x
Derived from the goals, several scientific methodological developments and implementations,
particularly in the areas of pattern recognition and computational intelligence,
will be pursued as part of the DAICOX architecture in the research work of this thesis.
The method pool is aimed to contain a rich choice of methods and algorithms covering
data acquisition and sensor configuration, signal processing and feature computation,
dimensionality reduction, and classification. These methods will be selected and parameterized
automatically by the DAICOX design optimization to construct a multi-sensory
cognition processing chain. A collection of non-parametric feature quality assessment
functions for the purpose of Dimensionality Reduction (DR) process will be presented.
In addition, to standard DR methods, the variations of feature selection method, in
particular, feature weighting will be proposed. Three different classification categories
shall be incorporated in the method pool. Hierarchical classification approach will be
proposed and developed to serve as a multi-sensor fusion architecture at the decision
level. Beside multi-class classification, one-class classification methods, e.g., One-Class
SVM and NOVCLASS will be presented to extend functionality of the solutions, in particular,
anomaly and novelty detection. DAICOX is conceived to effectively handle the
problem of method selection and parameter setting for a particular application yielding
high performance solutions. The processing chain construction tasks will be carried
out by meta-heuristic optimization methods, e.g., Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle
Swarm Optimization (PSO), with multi-objective optimization approach and model
analysis for robust solutions. In addition, to the automated system design mechanisms,
DAICOX will facilitate the design tasks with intuitive visual programming and various
options of visualization. Design database concept of DAICOX is aimed to allow the
reusability and extensibility of the designed solutions gained from previous knowledge.
Thus, the cooperative design of machine and knowledge from the design expert can also
be utilized for obtaining fully enhanced solutions. In particular, the integration of self-x
properties as well as intrinsic optimization into the system is proposed to gain enduring
reliability and robustness. Hence, DAICOX will allow the inclusion of dynamically
reconfigurable hardware instances to the designed solutions in order to realize intrinsic
optimization and self-x properties.
As a result from the research work in this thesis, a comprehensive intelligent multisensor
system design architecture with automated method selection, parameterization,
and model analysis is developed with compliance to open-source multi-platform software.It is integrated with an intuitive design environment, which includes visual programming
concept and design information visualizations. Thus, the design effort is minimized as
investigated in three case studies of different application background, e.g., food analysis
(LoX), driving assistance (DeCaDrive), and magnetic localization. Moreover, DAICOX
achieved better quality of the solutions compared to the manual approach in all cases,
where the classification rate was increased by 5.4%, 0.06%, and 11.4% in the LoX,
DeCaDrive, and magnetic localization case, respectively. The design time was reduced
by 81.87% compared to the conventional approach by using DAICOX in the LoX case
study. At the current state of development, a number of novel contributions of the thesis
are outlined below.
Automated processing chain construction and parameterization for the design of
signal processing and feature computation.
Novel dimensionality reduction methods, e.g., GA and PSO based feature selection
and feature weighting with multi-objective feature quality assessment.
A modification of non-parametric compactness measure for feature space quality
Decision level sensor fusion architecture based on proposed hierarchical classification
approach using, i.e., H-SVM.
A collection of one-class classification methods and a novel variation, i.e.,
Automated design toolboxes supporting front to back design with automated
model selection and information visualization.
In this research work, due to the complexity of the task, neither all of the identified goals
have been comprehensively reached yet nor has the complete architecture definition been
fully implemented. Based on the currently implemented tools and frameworks, ongoing
development of DAICOX is pursuing towards the complete architecture. The potential
future improvements are the extension of method pool with a richer choice of methods
and algorithms, processing chain breeding via graph based evolution approach, incorporation
of intrinsic optimization, and the integration of self-x properties. According to
these features, DAICOX will improve its aptness in designing advanced systems to serve
the increasingly growing technologies of distributed intelligent measurement systems, in
particular, CPS and Industrie 4.0.
This thesis deals with the development of a tractor front loader scale which measures payload continuously, independent of the center of gravity of the payload, and unaffected of the position and movements of the loader. To achieve this, a mathematic model of a common front loader is simplified which makes it possible to identify its parameters by a repeatable and automatic procedure. By measuring accelerations as well as cylinder forces, the payload is determined continuously during the working process. Finally, a prototype was build and the scale was tested on a tractor.
Die vorliegende Arbeit behandelt das Thema der pneumatischen Abstandsmessung. Diese Technologie ist neben der taktilen und optischen Messtechnik eine der drei Ansätze, um Messaufgaben in der Fertigungsmesstechnik zu lösen. Der große Vorteil pneumatischer Sensoren ist ihr Selbstreinigungseffekt, wodurch in rauen Umgebungen sicher gemessen werden kann. Momentan fehlende Grundlagenkenntnisse führen jedoch zu einer ineffizienten Nutzung der Technik. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde neues Wissen erarbeitet, so dass eine optimierte Anwendung dieser Sensorklasse möglich ist. Für das laterale und dynamische Verhalten der Sensoren sind Modelle zur Vorhersage von Messergebnissen vorgestellt. Weiterhin finden sich ausführliche Auslegestrategien für systemkritische Bauteile in dieser Arbeit. Auf Basis der Grundlagenuntersuchungen sind die wichtigsten Einflussgrößen der Messunsicherheit erläutert. Zur effizienten Wissensübertragung ist abschließend eine moderne Software präsentiert, welche eine Auslegung pneumatischer Sensoren für eine gegebene Messaufgabe ermöglicht und so das gesamte Wissen der Arbeit für den Anwender in der Industrie zusammenfasst.
Die Qualität hoch beanspruchter Oberflächen wird durch ihre Funktion festgelegt. Sogenannte Funktionsflächen sind dabei in vielen Bereichen der modernen Industrie zu finden. Zur Überwachung des Herstellungsprozesses dieser Flächen besteht daher stets ein Bedarf an sensitiver, genauer an die Bedürfnisse der Messaufgabe angepasster, Messtechnik. Ein Verfahren, welches aufgrund seines winkelmessenden Prinzips unempfindlich gegenüber Vibrationen ist und gleichzeitig eine flächige Beurteilung von Oberflächen ermöglicht, ist die winkelaufgelöste Streulichtmesstechnik. Sie nutzt das von einer rauen Oberfläche zurückgestreute Licht zur Charakterisierung. Während der Erwartungswert der gemessenen Streulichtverteilung Aufschluss über die Makrogestalt der Oberfläche liefert, enthält die Breite der Verteilung Informationen über die Mikrostruktur.
Die vorliegende Arbeit betrachtet zwei Themenkomplexe dieser Messtechnik: Zunächst wird die Qualifizierung einer bereits bestehenden Messeinrichtung zur zweidimensionalen Erfassung von Streulicht mittels linearem Diodenarray durchgeführt. Im Anschluss erfolgt die Erweiterung der Messeinrichtung zur Erfassung der dritten Dimension. Dieses Ziel wird durch Verfolgung zweier Ansätze, einem rotierenden Prisma sowie einem flächigen Detektor, erreicht.
This thesis treats the application of configurational forces for the evaluation of fracture processes in Antarctic ice shelves. FE simulations are used to analyze the influence of geometric scales, material parameters and boundary conditions on single surface cracks. A break-up event at the Wilkins Ice Shelf that coincided with a major temperature drop motivates the consideration of frost wedging as a mechanism for ice shelf disintegration. An algorithm for the evaluation of the crack propagation direction is used to analyze the horizontal growth of rifts. Using equilibrium considerations for a viscoelastic fluid, a method is introduced to compute viscous volume forces from measured velocity fields as loads for a linear elastic fracture mechanical analysis.
Piezoelectric materials are electro-mechanically coupled materials. In these materials it is possible to produce an electric field by applying a mechanical load. This phenomenon is known as the piezoelectric effect. These materials also exhibit a mechanical deformation in response to an external electric loading, which is known as the inverse piezoelectric effect. By using these smart properties of piezoelectric materials, applications are possible in sensors and actuators. Ferroelectric or piezoelectric materials show switching behavior of the polarization in the material under an external loading. Due to this property, these materials are used to produce random access memory (RAM) for the non-volatile storage of data in computing devices. It is essential to understand the material responses of piezoelectric materials properly in order to use them in the engineering applications in innovative manners. Due to the growing interest in determining the material responses of smart material (e.g., piezoelectric material), computational methods are becoming increasingly important.
Many engineering materials possess inhomogeneities on the micro level. These inhomogeneities in the materials cause some difficulties in the determination of the material responses computationally as well as experimentally. But on the other hand, sometimes these inhomogeneities help the materials to render some good physical properties, e.g., glass or carbon fiber reinforced composites are light weight, but show higher strength. Piezoelectric materials also exhibit intense inhomogeneities on the micro level. These inhomogeneities are originating from the presence of domains, domain walls, grains, grain boundaries, micro cracks, etc. in the material. In order to capture the effects of the underlying microstructures on the macro quantities, it is essential to homogenize material parameters and the physical responses. There are several approaches to perform the homogenization. A two-scale classical (first-order) homogenization of electro-mechanically coupled materials using a FE²-approach is discussed in this work. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influences of the underlying micro structures on the macro Eshelby stress tensor and on the macro configurational forces. The configurational forces are determined in certain defect situations. These defect situations include the crack tip of a sharp crack in the macro specimen.
A literature review shows that the macro strain tensor is used to determine the micro boundary condition for the FE²-based homogenization in a small strain setting. This approach is capable to determine the consistent homogenized physical quantities (e.g., stress, strain) and the homogenized material quantities (e.g., stiffness tensor). But the application of these type of micro boundaries for the homogenization does not generate physically consistent macro Eshelby stress tensor or the macro configurational forces. Even in the absence of the micro volume configurational forces, this approach of the homogenization of piezoelectric materials produces unphysical volume configurational forces on the macro level. After a thorough investigation of the boundary conditions on the representative volume elements (RVEs), it is found that a displacement gradient driven micro boundary conditions remedy this issue. The use of the displacement gradient driven micro boundary conditions also satisfies the Hill-Mandel condition. The macro Eshelby stress tensor of a pure mechanical problem in a small deformation setting can be determined in two possible ways: by using the homogenized mechanical quantities (displacement gradient and stress tensor), or by homogenizing the Eshelby stress tensor on the micro level by volume averaging. The first approach does not satisfy the Hill-Mandel condition incorporating the Eshelby stress tensor in the energy term, on the other hand, the Hill-Mandel condition is satisfied in the second approach. In the case of homogenized Eshelby stress tensor determined from the homogenized physical quantities, the Hill-Mandel condition gives an additional energy term. A body in a small deformation setting is deformed according to the displacement gradient. If the homogenization is done using strain driven micro boundary conditions, the micro domain is deformed according to the macro strain, but the tiny vicinity around the corresponding Gauß point is deformed according to the macro displacement gradient. This implies that some restrictions are imposed at every Gauß point on the macro level. This situation helps the macro system to produce nonphysical volume configurational forces.
A FE²-based computational homogenization technique is also considered for the homogenization of piezoelectric materials. In this technique a representative volume element, which comprises of the micro structural features in the material, is assigned to every Gauß point of the macro domain. The macro displacement gradient and the macro electric field, or the macro stress tensor and the macro electric displacement are passed to the RVEs at every macro Gauß point. After determining boundary conditions on the RVEs, the homogenization process is performed. The homogenized physical quantities and the homogenized material parameters are passed back to macro Gauß points. In this work numerical investigations are carried out for two distinct situations of the microstructures of the piezoelectric materials regarding the evolution on the micro level: a) homogenization by using stationary microstructures, and b) homogenization by using evolving microstructures.
For the first case, the domain walls remain at fixed positions through out the simulations for the homogenization of piezoelectric materials. For a considerably large external loading, the real situation is different. But to understand the effects of the underlying microstructures on the macro configurational forces, to some extent it is sufficient to do the homogenization with fixed or stationary microstructures. The homogenization process is carried out for different microstructures and for different loading conditions. If the mechanical load is applied in the direction of the polarization, a smaller crack tip configurational force is observed in comparison to the configurational force determined for a mechanical loading perpendicular to the polarization. If the polarizations in the microstructures are parallel or perpendicular to the applied electric field and the applied displacement, configurational forces parallel to the crack ligament of the macro crack are observed only. In the case of inclined polarizations in the microstructures, configurational forces inclined to the crack ligament are obtained. The simulation results also reveal that an application of an external electric field to the material reduces the value of the nodal configurational forces at the crack tip.
In the second case, the interfaces of the micro structures are allowed to move from their initial positions at every step of the applied incremental external loading. Thus, at every step of the application of the external loading, the microstructures are changed when the external loading is larger than the coercive field. The movement of the interfaces is realized through the nodal configurational forces on the micro level. At every step of the application of the external loading, the nodal configurational forces per unit length on the domain walls are determined in the post-processing of the FE-simulation on the micro domain. With the help of the domain wall kinetics, the new positions of the domain walls are determined. Numerical results show that the crack tip region is the most affected area in the macro domain. For that reason a very different distribution of the macro electric displacement is observed comparing the same produced by using fixed microstructures. Due to the movement of the domain walls, the energy is dissipated in the system. As a result, a smaller configurational force appears at the crack tip on the macro level in the case of the homogenization by using evolving microstructures. By using the homogenization technique involving the evolution of the microstructures, it is possible to produce the electric displacement vs. electric field hysteresis loop on the macro level. The shape of the hysteresis loop depends on the value of the rate of application of the external electric loading. A faster deployment of the external electric field widens the hysteresis loop.
Untersuchungen zum langzeitbeständigen Kleben von organisch bandbeschichteten
Stahlfeinblechen mittels Labormethoden stoßen immer wieder auf
die Problematik der korrosiven Unterwanderung der Beschichtung. Diese ist
für die Bestimmung der Langzeitbeständigkeit der Klebung hinderlich, da sie in
der Realität in dieser Form selten vorzufinden ist. Ein Ziel dieser Arbeit war es,
eine angepasste Klebprobengeometrie zu entwickeln, welche eine korrosive
Unterwanderung der organischen Bandbeschichtung in zeitraffenden Laboralterungstests
verhindert. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass mittels der entwickelten
Probengeometrie eine zuverlässige Bestimmung des Alterungsverhaltens
an geklebten Verbunden mit organisch bandbeschichteten Stahlfeinblechen
Hierauf aufbauend zielten die weiteren Untersuchungen mit zweikomponentigen
Polyurethan-Klebstoffen auf einen Vergleich der zeitraffenden Laboralterungsmethoden
mit nicht zeitraffenden Alterungsverfahren wie der Freibewitterung
und der Auslagerung am Feldfahrzeug. Die Auslagerung am
Feldfahrzeug erfolgte an Kühlfahrzeugen, welche im Speditionsverkehr auf
europäischen Routen verkehrten. Hauptaugenmerk bei allen Alterungsversuchen
war es neben der Bestimmung der Restfestigkeit auch die klimatischen
Expositionsbedingungen zu dokumentieren. Dies ermöglichte zum einen die
Interpretation der Zugscherergebnisse. Zum anderen konnte hieraus eine
Korrelation und letztendlich ein mathematisches Modell zur Festigkeitsvorhersage
von reversiblen Alterungseffekten abgeleitet werden. Mit diesem Modell
ist eine Vorhersage der Zugscherfestigkeit auf Basis eines bekannten Expositionsprofils
The advances in sensor technology have introduced smart electronic products with
high integration of multi-sensor elements, sensor electronics and sophisticated signal
processing algorithms, resulting in intelligent sensor systems with a significant level
of complexity. This complexity leads to higher vulnerability in performing their
respective functions in a dynamic environment. The system dependability can be
improved via the implementation of self-x features in reconfigurable systems. The
reconfiguration capability requires capable switching elements, typically in the form
of a CMOS switch or miniaturized electromagnetic relay. The emerging DC-MEMS
switch has the potential to complement the CMOS switch in System-in-Package as
well as integrated circuits solutions. The aim of this thesis is to study the feasibility
of using DC-MEMS switches to enable the self-x functionality at system level.
The self-x implementation is also extended to the component level, in which the
ISE-DC-MEMS switch is equipped with self-monitoring and self-repairing features.
The MEMS electrical behavioural model generated by the design tool is inadequate,
so additional electrical models have been proposed, simulated and validated. The
simplification of the mechanical MEMS model has produced inaccurate simulation
results that lead to the occurrence of stiction in the actual device. A stiction conformity
test has been proposed, implemented, and successfully validated to compensate
the inaccurate mechanical model. Four different system simulations of representative
applications were carried out using the improved behavioural MEMS model, to
show the aptness and the performances of the ISE-DC-MEMS switch in sensitive
reconfiguration tasks in the application and to compare it with transmission gates.
The current design of the ISE-DC-MEMS switch needs further optimization in terms
of size, driving voltage, and the robustness of the design to guarantee high output
yield in order to match the performance of commercial DC MEMS switches.