## Fraunhofer (ITWM)

In this article, we consider the problem of planning inspections and other tasks within a software development (SD) project with respect to the objectives quality (no. of defects), project duration, and costs. Based on a discrete-event simulation model of SD processes comprising the phases coding, inspection, test, and rework, we present a simplified formulation of the problem as a multiobjective optimization problem. For solving the problem (i.e. finding an approximation of the efficient set) we develop a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. Details of the algorithm are discussed as well as results of its application to sample problems.

Asymptotic homogenisation technique and two-scale convergence is used for analysis of macro-strength and fatigue durability of composites with a periodic structure under cyclic loading. The linear damage accumulation rule is employed in the phenomenological micro-durability conditions (for each component of the composite) under varying cyclic loading. Both local and non-local strength and durability conditions are analysed. The strong convergence of the strength and fatigue damage measure as the structure period tends to zero is proved and their limiting values are estimated.

One of the main goals of an organization developing software is to increase the quality of the software while at the same time to decrease the costs and the duration of the development process. To achieve this, various decisions e.ecting this goal before and during the development process have to be made by the managers. One appropriate tool for decision support are simulation models of the software life cycle, which also help to understand the dynamics of the software development process. Building up a simulation model requires a mathematical description of the interactions between di.erent objects involved in the development process. Based on experimental data, techniques from the .eld of knowledge discovery can be used to quantify these interactions and to generate new process knowledge based on the analysis of the determined relationships. In this paper blocked neuronal networks and related relevance measures will be presented as an appropriate tool for quanti.cation and validation of qualitatively known dependencies in the software development process.

The objective of the present article is to give an overview of an application of Fuzzy Logic in Regulation Thermography, a method of medical diagnosis support. An introduction to this method of the complementary medical science based on temperature measurements – so-called thermograms – is provided. The process of modelling the physician’s thermogram evaluation rules using the calculus of Fuzzy Logic is explained.

The Discrete Ordered Median Problem (DOMP) generalizes classical discrete location problems, such as the N-median, N-center and Uncapacitated Facility Location problems. It was introduced by Nickel [16], who formulated it as both a nonlinear and a linear integer program. We propose an alternative integer linear programming formulation for the DOMP, discuss relationships between both integer linear programming formulations, and show how properties of optimal solutions can be used to strengthen these formulations. Moreover, we present a specific branch and bound procedure to solve the DOMP more efficiently. We test the integer linear programming formulations and this branch and bound method computationally on randomly generated test problems.

We present two heuristic methods for solving the Discrete Ordered Median Problem (DOMP), for which no such approaches have been developed so far. The DOMP generalizes classical discrete facility location problems, such as the p-median, p-center and Uncapacitated Facility Location problems. The first procedure proposed in this paper is based on a genetic algorithm developed by Moreno Vega [MV96] for p-median and p-center problems. Additionally, a second heuristic approach based on the Variable Neighborhood Search metaheuristic (VNS) proposed by Hansen & Mladenovic [HM97] for the p-median problem is described. An extensive numerical study is presented to show the efficiency of both heuristics and compare them.

Radiation therapy planning is always a tight rope walk between dangerous insufficient dose in the target volume and life threatening overdosing of organs at risk. Finding ideal balances between these inherently contradictory goals challenges dosimetrists and physicians in their daily practice. Today’s planning systems are typically based on a single evaluation function that measures the quality of a radiation treatment plan. Unfortunately, such a one dimensional approach cannot satisfactorily map the different backgrounds of physicians and the patient dependent necessities. So, too often a time consuming iteration process between evaluation of dose distribution and redefinition of the evaluation function is needed. In this paper we propose a generic multi-criteria approach based on Pareto’s solution concept. For each entity of interest - target volume or organ at risk a structure dependent evaluation function is defined measuring deviations from ideal doses that are calculated from statistical functions. A reasonable bunch of clinically meaningful Pareto optimal solutions are stored in a data base, which can be interactively searched by physicians. The system guarantees dynamical planning as well as the discussion of tradeoffs between different entities. Mathematically, we model the upcoming inverse problem as a multi-criteria linear programming problem. Because of the large scale nature of the problem it is not possible to solve the problem in a 3D-setting without adaptive reduction by appropriate approximation schemes. Our approach is twofold: First, the discretization of the continuous problem is based on an adaptive hierarchical clustering process which is used for a local refinement of constraints during the optimization procedure. Second, the set of Pareto optimal solutions is approximated by an adaptive grid of representatives that are found by a hybrid process of calculating extreme compromises and interpolation methods.

In this paper, we present a novel multicriteria decision support system (MCDSS), called knowCube, consisting of components for knowledge organization, generation, and navigation. Knowledge organization rests upon a database for managing qualitative and quantitative criteria, together with add-on information. Knowledge generation serves filling the database via e.g. identification, optimization, classification or simulation. For “finding needles in haycocks”, the knowledge navigation component supports graphical database retrieval and interactive, goal-oriented problem solving. Navigation “helpers” are, for instance, cascading criteria aggregations, modifiable metrics, ergonomic interfaces, and customizable visualizations. Examples from real-life projects, e.g. in industrial engineering and in the life sciences, illustrate the application of our MCDSS.

In this paper we focus on the strategic design of supply chain networks. We propose a mathematical modeling framework that captures many practical aspects of network design problems simultaneously but which have not received adequate attention in the literature. The aspects considered include: dynamic planning horizon, generic supply chain network structure, external supply of materials, inventory opportunities for goods, distribution of commodities, facility configuration, availability of capital for investments, and storage limitations. Moreover, network configuration decisions concerning the gradual relocation of facilities over the planning horizon are considered. To cope with fluctuating demands, capacity expansion and reduction scenarios are also analyzed as well as modular capacity shifts. The relation of the proposed modeling framework with existing models is discussed. For problems of reasonable size we report on our computational experience with standard mathematical programming software. In particular, useful insights on the impact of various factors on network design decisions are provided.

A non-linear multigrid solver for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, exploiting finite volume discretization of the equations, is extended by adaptive local refinement. The multigrid is the outer iterative cycle, while the SIMPLE algorithm is used as a smoothing procedure. Error indicators are used to define the refinement subdomain. A special implementation approach is used, which allows to perform unstructured local refinement in conjunction with the finite volume discretization. The multigrid - adaptive local refinement algorithm is tested on 2D Poisson equation and further is applied to a lid-driven flows in a cavity (2D and 3D case), comparing the results with bench-mark data. The software design principles of the solver are also discussed.

On a Multigrid Adaptive Refinement Solver for Saturated Non-Newtonian Flow in Porous Media A multigrid adaptive refinement algorithm for non-Newtonian flow in porous media is presented. The saturated flow of a non-Newtonian fluid is described by the continuity equation and the generalized Darcy law. The resulting second order nonlinear elliptic equation is discretized by a finite volume method on a cell-centered grid. A nonlinear full-multigrid, full-approximation-storage algorithm is implemented. As a smoother, a single grid solver based on Picard linearization and Gauss-Seidel relaxation is used. Further, a local refinement multigrid algorithm on a composite grid is developed. A residual based error indicator is used in the adaptive refinement criterion. A special implementation approach is used, which allows us to perform unstructured local refinement in conjunction with the finite volume discretization. Several results from numerical experiments are presented in order to examine the performance of the solver.

This paper concerns numerical simulation of flow through oil filters. Oil filters consist of filter housing (filter box), and a porous filtering medium, which completely separates the inlet from the outlet. We discuss mathematical models, describing coupled flows in the pure liquid subregions and in the porous filter media, as well as interface conditions between them. Further, we reformulate the problem in fictitious regions method manner, and discuss peculiarities of the numerical algorithm in solving the coupled system. Next, we show numerical results, validating the model and the algorithm. Finally, we present results from simulation of 3-D oil flow through a real car filter.

We consider the problem of pricing European forward starting options in the presence of stochastic volatility. By performing a change of measure using the asset price at the time of strike determination as a numeraire, we derive a closed-form solution based on Heston’s model of stochastic volatility.

Industrial analog circuits are usually designed using numerical simulation tools. To obtain a deeper circuit understanding, symbolic analysis techniques can additionally be applied. Approximation methods which reduce the complexity of symbolic expressions are needed in order to handle industrial-sized problems. This paper will give an overview to the field of symbolic analog circuit analysis. Starting with a motivation, the state-of-the-art simplification algorithms for linear as well as for nonlinear circuits are presented. The basic ideas behind the different techniques are described, whereas the technical details can be found in the cited references. Finally, the application of linear and nonlinear symbolic analysis will be shown on two example circuits.

A new stability preserving model reduction algorithm for discrete linear SISO-systems based on their impulse response is proposed. Similar to the Padé approximation, an equation system for the Markov parameters involving the Hankel matrix is considered, that here however is chosen to be of very high dimension. Although this equation system therefore in general cannot be solved exactly, it is proved that the approximate solution, computed via the Moore-Penrose inverse, gives rise to a stability preserving reduction scheme, a property that cannot be guaranteed for the Padé approach. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is compared to another stability preserving reduction approach, namely the balanced truncation method, showing comparable performance of the reduced systems. The balanced truncation method however starts from a state space description of the systems and in general is expected to be more computational demanding.

In first part of this work, summaries of traditional Multiphase Flow Model and more recent Multiphase Mixture Model are presented. Attention is being paid to attempts include various heterogeneous aspects into models. In second part, MMM based differential model for two-phase immiscible flow in porous media is considered. A numerical scheme based on the sequential solution procedure and control volume based finite difference schemes for the pressure and saturation-conservation equations is developed. A computer simulator is built, which exploits object-oriented programming techniques. Numerical result for several test problems are reported.