A spectral theory for stationary random closed sets is developed and provided with a sound mathematical basis. Definition and proof of existence of the Bartlett spectrum of a stationary random closed set as well as the proof of a Wiener-Khintchine theorem for the power spectrum are used to two ends: First, well known second order characteristics like the covariance can be estimated faster than usual via frequency space. Second, the Bartlett spectrum and the power spectrum can be used as second order characteristics in frequency space. Examples show, that in some cases information about the random closed set is easier to obtain from these characteristics in frequency space than from their real world counterparts.

A spectral theory for constituents of macroscopically homogeneous random microstructures modeled as homogeneous random closed sets is developed and provided with a sound mathematical basis, where the spectrum obtained by Fourier methods corresponds to the angular intensity distribution of x-rays scattered by this constituent. It is shown that the fast Fourier transform applied to three-dimensional images of microstructures obtained by micro-tomography is a powerful tool of image processing. The applicability of this technique is is demonstrated in the analysis of images of porous media.