## Fraunhofer (ITWM)

- Variational multiscale Finite Element Method for flows in highly porous media (2010)
- We present a two-scale finite element method for solving Brinkman’s and Darcy’s equations. These systems of equations model fluid flows in highly porous and porous media, respectively. The method uses a recently proposed discontinuous Galerkin FEM for Stokes’ equations byWang and Ye and the concept of subgrid approximation developed by Arbogast for Darcy’s equations. In order to reduce the “resonance error” and to ensure convergence to the global fine solution the algorithm is put in the framework of alternating Schwarz iterations using subdomains around the coarse-grid boundaries. The discussed algorithms are implemented using the Deal.II finite element library and are tested on a number of model problems.

- On two-level preconditioners for flow in porous media (2007)
- Two-level domain decomposition preconditioner for 3D flows in anisotropic highly heterogeneous porous media is presented. Accurate finite volume discretization based on multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) for 3D pressure equation is employed to account for the jump discontinuities of full permeability tensors. DD/MG type preconditioner for above mentioned problem is developed. Coarse scale operator is obtained from a homogenization type procedure. The influence of the overlapping as well as the influence of the smoother and cell problem formulation is studied. Results from numerical experiments are presented and discussed.

- On numerical upscaling for flows in heterogeneous porous media (2007)
- A numerical upscaling approach, NU, for solving multiscale elliptic problems is discussed. The main components of this NU are: i) local solve of auxil- iary problems in grid blocks and formal upscaling of the obtained re sults to build a coarse scale equation; ii) global solve of the upscaled coarse scale equation; and iii) reconstruction of a fine scale solution by solving local block problems on a dual coarse grid. By its structure NU is similar to other methods for solving multiscale elliptic problems, such as the multiscale finite element method, the multiscale mixed finite element method, the numerical subgrid upscaling method, heterogeneous multiscale method, and the multiscale finite volume method. The difference with those methods is in the way the coarse scale equation is build and solved, and in the way the fine scale solution is reconstructed. Essential components of the presented here NU approach are the formal homogenization in the coarse blocks and the usage of so called multipoint flux approximation method, MPFA. Unlike the usual usage as MPFA as a discretiza- tion method for single scale elliptic problems with tensor discontinuous coefficients, we consider its usage as a part of a numerical upscaling approach. The main aim of this paper is to compare NU with the MsFEM. In particular, it is shown that the resonance effect, which limits the application of the Multiscale FEM, does not appear, or it is significantly relaxed, when the presented here numerical upscaling approach is applied.