The Lagrangian field-antifield formalism of Batalin and Vilkovisky (BV) is used to investigate the application of the collec- tive coordinate method to soliton quantisation. In field theories with soliton solutions, the Gaussian fluctuation operator has zero modes due to the breakdown of global symmetries of the Lagrangian in the soliton solutions. It is shown how Noether identities and local symmetries of the Lagrangian arise when collective coordinates are introduced in order to avoid divergences related to these zero modes. This transformation to collective and fluctuation degrees of freedom is interpreted as a canonical transformation in the symplectic field-antifield space which induces a time-local gauge symmetry. Separating the corresponding Lagrangian path integral of the BV scheme in lowest order into harmonic quantum fluctuations and a free motion of the collective coordinate with the classical mass of the soliton, we show how the BV approach clarifies the relation between zero modes, collective coordinates, gauge invariance and the center- of-mass motion of classical solutions in quantum fields. Finally, we apply the procedure to the reduced nonlinear O(3) oe-model.^L
Abstract: We calculate exact analytical expressions for O(alpha s) 3-jet and O (alpha^2 s ) 4-jet cross sections in polarized deep inelastic lepton nucleon scattering. Introducing an invariant jet definition scheme, we present differential distributions of 3- and 4-jet cross sections in the basic kinematical variables x and W^2 as well as total jet cross sections and show their dependence on the chosen spin-dependent (polarized) parton distributions. Noticebly differences in the predictions are found for the two extreme choices, i.e. a large negative sea-quark density or a large positive gluon density. Therefore, it may be possible to discriminate between different parametrizations of polarized parton densities, and hence between the different physical pictures of the proton spin underlying these parametrizations.
A new method is used to investigate the tunneling between two weakly-linked Bose-Einstein con- densates confined in double-well potential traps. The nonlinear interaction between the atoms in each well contributes to a finite chemical potential, which, with consideration of periodic instantons, leads to a remarkably high tunneling frequency. This result can be used to interpret the newly found Macroscopic Quantum Self Trapping (MQST) effect. Also a new kind of first-order crossover between different regions is predicted.
Abstract: We present experimental and theoretical results of a detailed study of laser-induced continuum structures (LICS) in the photoionization continuum of helium out of the metastable state 2s^1 S_0. The continuum dressing with a 1064 nm laser, couples the same region of the continuum to the 4s^1 S_0 state. The experimental data, presented for a range of intensities, show pronounced ionization suppression (by asmuch as 70% with respect to the far-from-resonance value) as well as enhancement, in a Beutler-Fano resonance profile. This ionization suppression is a clear indication of population trapping mediated by coupling to a contiuum. We present experimental results demonstrating the effect of pulse delay upon the LICS, and for the behavior of LICS for both weak and strong probe pulses. Simulations based upon numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation model the experimental results. The atomic parameters (Rabi frequencies and Stark shifts) are calculated using a simple model-potential method for the computation of the needed wavefunctions. The simulations of the LICS profiles are in excellent agreement with experiment. We also present an analytic formulation of pulsed LICS. We show that in the case of a probe pulse shorter than the dressing one the LICS profile is the convolution of the power spectra of the probe pulse with the usual Fano profile of stationary LICS. We discuss some consequences of deviation from steady-state theory.
Hexagonal BN films have been deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion plating. The elastic properties of the films grown on silicon substrates under identical coating conditions have been de-termined by Brillouin light scattering from thermally excited surface phonons. Four of the five independent elastic constants of the deposited material are found to be c11 = 65 GPa, c13 = 7 GPa, c33 = 92 GPa and c44 = 53 GPa exhibiting an elastic anisotropy c11/c33 of 0.7. The Young's modulus determined with load indentation is distinctly larger than the corresponding value taken from Brillouin light scattering. This discrepancy is attributed to the specific morphology of the material with nanocrystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix.
Phase velocities of surface acoustic waves in several boron nitride films were investigated by Brillouin light scattering. In the case of films with predominantly hexagonal crystal structure, grown under conditions close to the nucleation threshold of cubic BN, four independent elastic constants have been determined from the dispersion of the Rayleigh and the first Sezawa mode. The large elastic anisotropy of up to c11/c33 = 0.1 is attributed to a pronounced texture with the c-axes of the crystallites parallel to the film plane. In the case of cubic BN films the dispersion of the Rayleigh wave provides evidence for the existence of a more compliant layer at the substrate-film interface. The observed broadening of the Rayleigh mode is identified to be caused by the film morphology.