## Fachbereich Physik

Dynamics of Excited Electrons in Copper and Ferromagnetic Transition Metals: Theory and Experiment
(2000)

Both theoretical and experimental results for the dynamics of photoexcited electrons at surfaces of Cu and the ferromagnetic transition metals Fe, Co, and Ni are presented. A model for the dynamics of excited electrons is developed, which is based on the Boltzmann equation and includes effects of photoexcitation, electron-electron scattering, secondary electrons (cascade and Auger electrons), and transport of excited carriers out of the detection region. From this we determine the time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE). Thus a direct comparison of calculated relaxation times with experimental results by means of TR-2PPE becomes possible. The comparison indicates that the magnitudes of the spin-averaged relaxation time t and of the ratio t_up/t_down of majority and minority relaxation times for the different ferromagnetic transition metals result not only from density-of-states effects, but also from different Coulomb matrix elements M. Taking M_Fe > M_Cu > M_Ni = M_Co we get reasonable agreement with experiments.

The critical points of the continuous series are characterized by two complex numbers l_1,l_2 (Re(l_1,l_2)< 0), and a natural number n (n>=3) which enters the string susceptibility constant through gamma = -2/(n-1). The critical potentials are analytic functions with a convergence radius depending on l_1 or l_2. We use the orthogonal polynomial method and solve the Schwinger-Dyson equations with a technique borrowed from conformal field theory.

We present a complete derivation of the semiclassical limit of the coherent state propagator in one dimension, starting from path integrals in phase space. We show that the arbitrariness in the path integral representation, which follows from the overcompleteness of the coherent states, results in many different semiclassical limits. We explicitly derive two possible semiclassical formulae for the propagator, we suggest a third one, and we discuss their relationships. We also derive an initial value representation for the semiclassical propagator, based on an initial gaussian wavepacket. It turns out to be related to, but different from, Heller's thawed gaussian approximation. It is very different from the Herman - Kluk formula, which is not a correct semiclassical limit. We point out errors in two derivations of the latter. Finally we show how the semiclassical coherent state propagators lead to WKB-type quantization rules and to approximations for the Husimi distributions of stationary states.

The first observation of spatiotemporal self-focusing of spin waves is reported. The experimental results are obtained for dipolar spin waves in yttrium-iron-garnet films by means of a newly developed space- and time-resolved Brillouin light scattering technique. They demonstrate self-focusing of a moving wave pulse in two spatial dimensions, and formation of localized two-dimensional wave packets, the collapse of which is stopped by dissipation. The experimental results are in good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations.

We report results of the switching properties of Stoner-like magnetic particles subject to short magnetic field pulses, obtained by numerical investigations. We discuss the switching properties as a function of the external field pulse strength and direction, the pulse length and the pulse shape. For field pulses long compared to the ferromagnetic resonance precession time the switching behavior is governed by the magnetic damping term, whereas in the limit of short field pulses the switching properties are dominated by the details of the precession of the magnetic moment. In the latter case, by choosing the right field pulse parameters, the magnetic damping term is of minor importance and ultrafast switching can be achieved. Switching can be obtained in an enlarged angular range of the direction of the applied field compared to the case of long pulses.

For the next generation of high data rate magnetic recording above 1 Gbit/s, a better understanding of the switching processes for both recording heads and media will be required. In order to maximize the switch-ing speed for such devices, the magnetization precession after the magnetic field pulse termination needs to be suppressed to a maximum degree. It is demonstrated experimentally for ferrite films that the appropriate adjustment of the field pulse parameters and/or the static applied field may lead to a full suppression of the magnetization precession immediately upon termination of the field pulse. The suppression is explained by taking into account the actual direction of the magnetization with respect to the static field direction at the pulse termination.