## Fachbereich Mathematik

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- Comparison of kinetic theory and discrete element schemes for modelling granular Couette flows (1999)
- Discrete element based simulations of granular flow in a 2d velocity space are compared with a particle code that solves kinetic granular flow equations in two and three dimensions. The binary collisions of the latter are governed by the same forces as for the discrete elements. Both methods are applied to a granular shear flow of equally sized discs and spheres. The two dimensional implementation of the kinetic approach shows excellent agreement with the results of the discrete element simulations. When changing to a three dimensional velocity space, the qualitative features of the flow are maintained. However, some flow properties change quantitatively.

- Transition from Kinetic Theory to Macroscopic Fluid Equations: A Problem fo Domain Decomposition and a Source for New Algorithms (1999)
- In the paper we discuss the transition from kinetic theory to macroscopic fluid equations, where the macroscopic equations are defined as aymptotic limits of a kinetic equation. This relation can be used to derive computationally efficient domain decomposition schemes for the simulaion of rarefied gas flows close to the continuum limit. Moreover, we present some basic ideas for the derivation of kinetic induced numerical schemes for macroscopic equations, namely kinetic schemes for general conservation laws as well as Lattice-Boltzmann methods for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.

- Variational methods for elliptic boundary value methods (1999)
- The mathematical modelling of problems in science and engineering leads often to partial differential equations in time and space with boundary and initial conditions.The boundary value problems can be written as extremal problems(principle of minimal potential energy), as variational equations (principle of virtual power) or as classical boundary value problems.There are connections concerning existence and uniqueness results between these formulations, which will be investigated using the powerful tools of functional analysis.The first part of the lecture is devoted to the analysis of linear elliptic boundary value problems given in a variational form.The second part deals with the numerical approximation of the solutions of the variational problems.Galerkin methods as FEM and BEM are the main tools. The h-version will be discussed, and an error analysis will be done.Examples, especially from the elasticity theory, demonstrate the methods.

- Existence and Learning of Oscillations in Recurrent Neural Networks (1998)
- In this paper we study a particular class of \(n\)-node recurrent neural networks (RNNs).In the \(3\)-node case we use monotone dynamical systems theory to show,for a well-defined set of parameters, that,generically, every orbit of the RNN is asymptotic to a periodic orbit.Then, within the usual 'learning' context of NeuralNetworks, we investigate whether RNNs of this class can adapt their internal parameters soas to 'learn' and then replicate autonomously certain external periodic signals.Our learning algorithm is similar to identification algorithms in adaptivecontrol theory. The main feature of the adaptation algorithm is that global exponential convergenceof parameters is guaranteed. We also obtain partial convergence results in the \(n\)-node case.

- Problems Related to Solutions to the Navier-Stokes Equations (1999)
- Many interesting problems arise from the study of the behavior of fluids. From a theoretical point of view Fluid Dynamics works with a well defined set of equat ions for which it is expected to get a clear description of the solutions. Unfortunately, in ge neral this is not easy even if the many experiments performed in the field seem to indicate which path to follow. Some of the basic questions are still either partially or widely open. For example we would like to have a better understanding on : 1. Questions for both bounded and unbounded domains on regularity, uniqueness, long time behavior of the solutions. 2. How well do solutions to the fluid equations fit to the real flow. Depending on the type of data most of the answers to these questions are knonw, when we work in two dimensions. For solutions in three dimensions, in general, we have only partial answers.

- Applications of a New Model for the Differential Cross-Section of a Classical Polyatomic Gas (1999)
- We give a comparison of various differential cross-section models for a classical polyatomic gas for a homogeneous relaxation problem and the shock wave profiles at Mach numbers 1.71 and 12.9. Besides the standard Borgnakke-Larsen model and its generalizations to an energy dependent coefficient to control the amnount of rotationally elastic and completely inelastic collisions, we discuss some new models recently proposed by the same authors. Moreover, we present numerical algorithms to implement the models in a particle or Monte-Carlo code and compare the numerical shock wave profiles with existing experimental data.

- Maximum entropy for reduced moment problems (1999)
- The existence of maximum entropy solutions for a wide class of reduced moment problems on arbitrary open subsets of Rd is considered. In particular, new results for the case of unbounded domains are obtained. A precise condition is presented under which solvability of the moment problem implies existence of a maximum entropy solution.

- The Quantum Zero Space Charge Model for Semiconductors (1999)
- The thermal equilibrium state of a bipolar, isothermal quantum fluid confined to a bounded domain \(\Omega\subset I\!\!R^d,d=1,2\) or \( d=3\) is the minimizer of the total energy \({\mathcal E}_{\epsilon\lambda}\); \({\mathcal E}_{\epsilon\lambda}\) involves the squares of the scaled Planck's constant \(\epsilon\) and the scaled minimal Debye length \(\lambda\). In applications one frequently has \(\lambda^2\ll 1\). In these cases the zero-space-charge approximation is rigorously justified. As \(\lambda \to 0 \), the particle densities converge to the minimizer of a limiting quantum zero-space-charge functional exactly in those cases where the doping profile satisfies some compatibility conditions. Under natural additional assumptions on the internal energies one gets an differential-algebraic system for the limiting \((\lambda=0)\) particle densities, namely the quantum zero-space-charge model. The analysis of the subsequent limit \(\epsilon \to 0\) exhibits the importance of quantum gaps. The semiclassical zero-space-charge model is, for small \(\epsilon\), a reasonable approximation of the quantum model if and only if the quantum gap vanishes. The simultaneous limit \(\epsilon =\lambda \to 0\) is analyzed.

- A General Hilbert Space Approach to Wavelets and Its Application in Geopotential Determination (1999)
- A general approach to wavelets is presented within a framework of a separable functional Hilbert space H. Basic tool is the construction of H-product kernels by use of Fourier analysis with respect to an orthonormal basis in H. Scaling function and wavelet are defined in terms of H-product kernels. Wavelets are shown to be 'building blocks' that decorrelate the data. A pyramid scheme provides fast computation. Finally, the determination of the earth's gravitational potential from single and multipole expressions is organized as an example of wavelet approximation in Hilbert space structure.