## Fachbereich Mathematik

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- Four characterizations of scalar-type operators with spectrum in a half-line (1997)
- \(C^0\)-scalar-type spectrality criterions for operators \(A\), whose resolvent set contains the negative reals, are provided. The criterions are given in terms of growth conditions on the resolvent of \(A\) and the semi-group generated by \(A\).These criterions characterize scalar-type operators on the Banach space \(X\), if and only if \(X\) has no subspace isomorphic to the space of complex null-sequences.

- Castelnuvo Function, Zero-dimensional Schemes and Singular Plane Curves (1999)
- We study families V of curves in P2(C) of degree d having exactly r singular points of given topological or analytic types. We derive new sufficient conditions for V to be T-smooth (smooth of the expected dimension), respectively to be irreducible. For T-smoothness these conditions involve new invariants of curve singularities and are conjectured to be asymptotically proper, i.e., optimal up to a constant factor. To obtain the results, we study the Castelnuovo function, prove the irreducibility of the Hilbert scheme of zero-dimensional schemes associated to a cluster of infinitely near points of the singularities and deduce new vanishing theorems for ideal sheaves of zero-dimensional schemes in P2. Moreover, we give a series of examples of cuspidal curves where the family V is reducible, but where ss1(P2nC) coincides (and is abelian) for all C 2 V .

- Gröbner bases and algebraic geometry (1999)
- After the notion of Gröbner bases and an algorithm for constructing them was introduced by Buchberger [Bu1, Bu2] algebraic geometers have used Gröbner bases as the main computational tool for many years, either to prove a theorem or to disprove a conjecture or just to experiment with examples in order to obtain a feeling about the structure of an algebraic variety. Nontrivial problems coming either from logic, mathematics or applications usually lead to nontrivial Gröbner basis computations, which is the reason why several improvements have been provided by many people and have been implemented in general purpose systems like Axiom, Maple, Mathematica, Reduce, etc., and systems specialized for use in algebraic geometry and commutative algebra like CoCoA, Macaulay and Singular. The present paper starts with an introduction to some concepts of algebraic geometry which should be understood by people with (almost) no knowledge in this field. In the second chapter we introduce standard bases (generalization of Gr"obner bases to non-well-orderings), which are needed for applications to local algebraic geometry (singularity theory), and a method for computing syzygies and free resolutions. The last chapter describes a new algorithm for computing the normalization of a reduced affine ring and gives an elementary introduction to singularity theory. Then we describe algorithms, using standard bases, to compute infinitesimal deformations and obstructions, which are basic for the deformation theory of isolated singularities. It is impossible to list all papers where Gr"obner bases have been used in local and global algebraic geometry, and even more impossible to give an overview about these contributions. We have, therefore, included only references to papers mentioned in this tutorial paper. The interested reader will find many more in the other contributions of this volume and in the literature cited there.

- Algorithmic ideal theory (1999)
- Algebraic geometers have used Gröbner bases as the main computational tool for many years, either to prove a theorem or to disprove a conjecture or just to experiment with examples in order to obtain a feeling about the structure of an algebraic variety. Non-trivial mathematical problems usually lead to non-trivial Gröbner basis computations, which is the reason why several improvements and efficient implementations have been provided by algebraic geometers (for example, the systems CoCoA, Macaulay and SINGULAR). The present paper starts with an introduction to some concepts of algebraic geometry which should be understood by people with (almost) no knowledge in this field. In the second chapter we introduce standard bases (generalization of Gröbner bases to non-well-orderings), which are needed for applications to local algebraic geometry (singularity theory), and a method for computing syzygies and free resolutions. In the third chapter several algorithms for primary decomposition of polynomial ideals are presented, together with a discussion of improvements and preferable choices. We also describe a newly invented algorithm for computing the normalization of a reduced affine ring. The last chapter gives an elementary introduction to singularity theory and then describes algorithms, using standard bases, to compute infinitesimal deformations and obstructions, which are basic for the deformation theory of isolated singularities. It is impossible to list all papers where Gröbner basis have been used in local and global algebraic geometry, and even more impossible to give an overview about these contributions. We have, therefore, included only a few references to papers which contain interesting applications and which are not mentioned in this tutorial paper. The interested reader will find many more in the other contributions of this volume and in the literature cited there.

- Geometry of Equisingular Families of Curves (1999)
- Singular algebraic curves, their existence, deformation, families (from the local and global point of view) attract continuous attention of algebraic geometers since the last century. The aim of our paper is to give an account of results, new trends and bibliography related to the geometry of equisingular families of algebraic curves on smooth algebraic surfaces over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. This theory is founded in basic works of Plücker, Severi, Segre, Zariski, and has tight links and finds important applications in singularity theory, topology of complex algebraic curves and surfaces, and in real algebraic geometry.

- Toying with Jordan matrices (1996)
- It is shown that an important resolvent estimate is unstable under small perturbations.

- Iterative Methods with Perturbations for Ill-Posed Problems (1999)
- We consider regularizing iterative procedures for ill-possed problems with random and nonrandom additive errors. The rate of square-mean convergence for iterative procedures with random errors is studied. The comparison theorem is established for the convergence of procedures with and without additive errors.

- On Moment-Dissipative Stochastic Dynamical (1999)
- Nonlinear dissipativity, asymptotical stability, and contractivity of (ordinary) stochastic differential equations (SDEs) with some dissipative structure and their discretizations are studied in terms of their moments in the spirit of Pliss (1977). For this purpose, we introduce the notions and discuss related concepts of dissipativity, growth- bounded and monotone coefficient systems, asymptotical stability and contractivity in wide and narrow sense, nonlinear A-stability, AN-stability, B-stability and BN-stability for stochastic dynamical systems - more or less as stochastic counterparts to deterministic concepts. The test class of in a broad sense interpreted dissipative SDEs as natural analogon to dissipative deterministic differential systems is suggested for stochastic-numerical methods. Then, in particular, a kind of mean square calculus is developed, although most of ideas and analysis can be carried over to general "stochastic Lp-case" (p * 1). By this natural restriction, the new stochastic concepts are theoretically meaningful, as in deterministic analysis. Since the choice of step sizes then plays no essential role in related proofs, we even obtain nonlinear A-stability, AN-stability, B-stability and BN-stability in the mean square sense for this implicit method with respect to appropriate test classes of moment-dissipative SDEs.