## Fachbereich Mathematik

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- Fachbereich Mathematik (188)
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- The enumeration of plane tropical curves (2006)
- Tropical geometry is a rather new field of algebraic geometry. The main idea is to replace algebraic varieties by certain piece-wise linear objects in R^n, which can be studied with the aid of combinatorics. There is hope that many algebraically difficult operations become easier in the tropical setting, as the structure of the objects seems to be simpler. In particular, tropical geometry shows promise for application in enumerative geometry. Enumerative geometry deals with the counting of geometric objects that are determined by certain incidence conditions. Until around 1990, not many enumerative questions had been answered and there was not much prospect of solving more. But then Kontsevich introduced the moduli space of stable maps which turned out to be a very useful concept for the study of enumerative geometry. A well-known problem of enumerative geometry is to determine the numbers N_cplx(d,g) of complex genus g plane curves of degree d passing through 3d+g-1 points in general position. Mikhalkin has defined the analogous number N_trop(d,g) for tropical curves and shown that these two numbers coincide (Mikhalkin's Correspondence Theorem). Tropical geometry supplies many new ideas and concepts that could be helpful to answer enumerative problems. However, as a rather new field, tropical geometry has to be studied more thoroughly. This thesis is concerned with the ``translation'' of well-known facts of enumerative geometry to tropical geometry. More precisely, the main results of this thesis are: - a tropical proof of the invariance of N_trop(d,g) of the position of the 3d+g-1 points, - a tropical proof for Kontsevich's recursive formula to compute N_trop(d,0) and - a tropical proof of Caporaso's and Harris' algorithm to compute N_trop(d,g). All results were derived in joint work with my advisor Andreas Gathmann. (Note that tropical research is not restricted to the translation of classically well-known facts, there are actually new results shown by means of tropical geometry that have not been known before. For example, Mikhalkin gave a tropical algorithm to compute the Welschinger invariant for real curves. This shows that tropical geometry can indeed be a tool for a better understanding of classical geometry.)

- Meshfree Methods for the Dynamics of Solids (2005)
- Over the last decades, mathematical modeling has reached nearly all fields of natural science. The abstraction and reduction to a mathematical model has proven to be a powerful tool to gain a deeper insight into physical and technical processes. The increasing computing power has made numerical simulations available for many industrial applications. In recent years, mathematicians and engineers have turned there attention to model solid materials. New challenges have been found in the simulation of solids and fluid-structure interactions. In this context, it is indispensable to study the dynamics of elastic solids. Elasticity is a main feature of solid bodies while demanding a great deal of the numerical treatment. There exists a multitude of commercial tools to simulate the behavior of elastic solids. Anyhow, the majority of these software packages consider quasi-stationary problems. In the present work, we are interested in highly dynamical problems, e.g. the rotation of a solid. The applicability to free-boundary problems is a further emphasis of our considerations. In the last years, meshless or particle methods have attracted more and more attention. In many fields of numerical simulation these methods are on a par with classical methods or superior to them. In this work, we present the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) which uses a moving least squares particle approximation operator. The application of this method to various industrial problems at the Fraunhofer ITWM has shown that FPM is particularly suitable for highly dynamical problems with free surfaces and strongly changing geometries. Thereby, FPM offers exactly the features that we require for the analysis of the dynamics of solid bodies. In the present work, we provide a numerical scheme capable to simulate the behavior of elastic solids. We present the system of partial differential equations describing the dynamics of elastic solids and show its hyperbolic character. In particular, we focus our attention to the constitutive law for the stress tensor and provide evolution equations for the deviatoric part of the stress tensor in order to circumvent limitations of the classical Hooke's law. Furthermore, we present the basic principle of the Finite Pointset Method. In particular, we provide the concept of upwinding in a given direction as a key ingredient for stabilizing hyperbolic systems. The main part of this work describes the design of a numerical scheme based on FPM and an operator splitting to take the different processes within a solid body into account. Each resulting subsystem is treated separately in an adequate way. Hereby, we introduce the notion of system-inherent directions and dimensional upwinding. Finally, a coupling strategy for the subsystems and results are presented. We close this work with some final conclusions and an outlook on future work.

- The Dynamics of Viscous Fibers (2006)
- This work deals with the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the dynamics of a curved inertial viscous Newtonian fiber, which is practically applicable to the description of centrifugal spinning processes of glass wool. Neglecting surface tension and temperature dependence, the fiber flow is modeled as a three-dimensional free boundary value problem via instationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. From regular asymptotic expansions in powers of the slenderness parameter leading-order balance laws for mass (cross-section) and momentum are derived that combine the unrestricted motion of the fiber center-line with the inner viscous transport. The physically reasonable form of the one-dimensional fiber model results thereby from the introduction of the intrinsic velocity that characterizes the convective terms. For the numerical simulation of the derived model a finite volume code is developed. The results of the numerical scheme for high Reynolds numbers are validated by comparing them with the analytical solution of the inviscid problem. Moreover, the influence of parameters, like viscosity and rotation on the fiber dynamics are investigated. Finally, an application based on industrial data is performed.

- Matrix Decomposition with Times and Cardinality Objectives: Theory, Algorithms and Application to Multileaf Collimator Sequencing (2005)
- In this thesis we have discussed the problem of decomposing an integer matrix \(A\) into a weighted sum \(A=\sum_{k \in {\mathcal K}} \alpha_k Y^k\) of 0-1 matrices with the strict consecutive ones property. We have developed algorithms to find decompositions which minimize the decomposition time \(\sum_{k \in {\mathcal K}} \alpha_k\) and the decomposition cardinality \(|\{ k \in {\mathcal K}: \alpha_k > 0\}|\). In the absence of additional constraints on the 0-1 matrices \(Y^k\) we have given an algorithm that finds the minimal decomposition time in \({\mathcal O}(NM)\) time. For the case that the matrices \(Y^k\) are restricted to shape matrices -- a restriction which is important in the application of our results in radiotherapy -- we have given an \({\mathcal O}(NM^2)\) algorithm. This is achieved by solving an integer programming formulation of the problem by a very efficient combinatorial algorithm. In addition, we have shown that the problem of minimizing decomposition cardinality is strongly NP-hard, even for matrices with one row (and thus for the unconstrained as well as the shape matrix decomposition). Our greedy heuristics are based on the results for the decomposition time problem and produce better results than previously published algorithms.

- Nonlinear Flow in Porous Media - Numerical Solution of the Navier-Stokes System with Two Pressures and Application to Paper Making (2005)
- The aim of the thesis is the numerical investigation of saturated, stationary, incompressible Newtonian flow in porous media when inertia is not negligible. We focus our attention to the Navier-Stokes system with two pressures derived by two-scale homogenization. The thesis is subdivided into five Chapters. After the introductory remarks on porous media, filtration laws and upscaling methods, the first chapter is closed by stating the basic terminology and mathematical fundamentals. In Chapter 2, we start by formulating the Navier-Stokes equations on a periodic porous medium. By two-scale expansions of the velocity and pressure, we formally derive the Navier-Stokes system with two pressures. For the sake of completeness, known existence and uniqueness results are repeated and a convergence proof is given. Finally, we consider Stokes and Navier-Stokes systems with two pressures with respect to their relation to Darcy's law. Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 are devoted to the numerical solution of the nonlinear two pressure system. Therefore, we follow two approaches. The first approach which is developed in Chapter 3 is based on a splitting of the Navier-Stokes system with two pressures into micro and macro problems. The splitting is achieved by Taylor expanding the permeability function or by discretely computing the permeability function. The problems to be solved are a series of Stokes and Navier-Stokes problems on the periodicity cell. The Stokes problems are solved by an Uzawa conjugate gradient method. The Navier-Stokes equations are linearized by a least-squares conjugate gradient method, which leads to the solution of a sequence of Stokes problems. The macro problem consists of solving a nonlinear uniformly elliptic equation of second order. The least-squares linearization is applied to the macro problem leading to a sequence of Poisson problems. All equations will be discretized by finite elements. Numerical results are presented at the end of Chapter 3. The second approach presented in Chapter 4 relies on the variational formulation in a certain Hilbert space setting of the Navier-Stokes system with two pressures. The nonlinear problem is again linearized by the least-squares conjugate gradient method. We obtain a sequence of Stokes systems with two pressures. For the latter systems, we propose a fast solution method which relies on pre-computing Stokes systems on the periodicity cell for finite element basis functions acting as right hand sides. Finally, numerical results are discussed. In Chapter 5 we are concerned with modeling and simulation of the pressing section of a paper machine. We state a two-dimensional model of a press nip which takes into account elasticity and flow phenomena. Nonlinear filtration laws are incorporated into the flow model. We present a numerical solution algorithm and the chapter is closed by a numerical investigation of the model with special focus on inertia effects.

- GARCH-like Models with Dynamic Crash-Probabilities (2005)
- We work in the setting of time series of financial returns. Our starting point are the GARCH models, which are very common in practice. We introduce the possibility of having crashes in such GARCH models. A crash will be modeled by drawing innovations from a distribution with much mass on extremely negative events, while in ''normal'' times the innovations will be drawn from a normal distribution. The probability of a crash is modeled to be time dependent, depending on the past of the observed time series and/or exogenous variables. The aim is a splitting of risk into ''normal'' risk coming mainly from the GARCH dynamic and extreme event risk coming from the modeled crashes. We will present several incarnations of this modeling idea and give some basic properties like the conditional first and second moments. For the special case that we just have an ARCH dynamic we can establish geometric ergodicity and, thus, stationarity and mixing conditions. Also in the ARCH case we formulate (quasi) maximum likelihood estimators and can derive conditions for consistency and asymptotic normality of the parameter estimates. In a special case of genuine GARCH dynamic we are able to establish L_1-approximability and hence laws of large numbers for the processes itself. We can formulate a conditional maximum likelihood estimator in this case, but cannot completely establish consistency for them. On the practical side we look for the outcome of estimating models with genuine GARCH dynamic and compare the result to classical GARCH models. We apply the models to Value at Risk estimation and see that in comparison to the classical models many of ours seem to work better although we chose the crash distributions quite heuristically.

- Non-commutative Computer Algebra for polynomial algebras: Gröbner bases, applications and implementation (2005)
- Non-commutative polynomial algebras appear in a wide range of applications, from quantum groups and theoretical physics to linear differential and difference equations. In the thesis, we have developed a framework, unifying many important algebras in the classes of \(G\)- and \(GR\)-algebras and studied their ring-theoretic properties. Let \(A\) be a \(G\)-algebra in \(n\) variables. We establish necessary and sufficient conditions for \(A\) to have a Poincar'e-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) basis. Further on, we show that besides the existence of a PBW basis, \(A\) shares some other properties with the commutative polynomial ring \(\mathbb{K}[x_1,\ldots,x_n]\). In particular, \(A\) is a Noetherian integral domain of Gel'fand-Kirillov dimension \(n\). Both Krull and global homological dimension of \(A\) are bounded by \(n\); we provide examples of \(G\)-algebras where these inequalities are strict. Finally, we prove that \(A\) is Auslander-regular and a Cohen-Macaulay algebra. In order to perform symbolic computations with modules over \(GR\)-algebras, we generalize Gröbner bases theory, develop and respectively enhance new and existing algorithms. We unite the most fundamental algorithms in a suite of applications, called "Gröbner basics" in the literature. Furthermore, we discuss algorithms appearing in the non-commutative case only, among others two-sided Gröbner bases for bimodules, annihilators of left modules and operations with opposite algebras. An important role in Representation Theory is played by various subalgebras, like the center and the Gel'fand-Zetlin subalgebra. We discuss their properties and their relations to Gröbner bases, and briefly comment some aspects of their computation. We proceed with these subalgebras in the chapter devoted to the algorithmic study of morphisms between \(GR\)-algebras. We provide new results and algorithms for computing the preimage of a left ideal under a morphism of \(GR\)-algebras and show both merits and limitations of several methods that we propose. We use this technique for the computation of the kernel of a morphism, decomposition of a module into central characters and algebraic dependence of pairwise commuting elements. We give an algorithm for computing the set of one-dimensional representations of a \(G\)-algebra \(A\), and prove, moreover, that if the set of finite dimensional representations of \(A\) over a ground field \(K\) is not empty, then the homological dimension of \(A\) equals \(n\). All the algorithms are implemented in a kernel extension Plural of the computer algebra system Singular. We discuss the efficiency of computations and provide a comparison with other computer algebra systems. We propose a collection of benchmarks for testing the performance of algorithms; the comparison of timings shows that our implementation outperforms all of the modern systems with the combination of both broad functionality and fast implementation. In the thesis, there are many new non-trivial examples, and also the solutions to various problems, arising in different fields of mathematics. All of them were obtained with the developed theory and the implementation in Plural, most of them are treated computationally in this thesis for the first time.

- Modeling and Simulation of the Float Glass Process (2005)
- Since its invention by Sir Allistair Pilkington in 1952, the float glass process has been used to manufacture long thin flat sheets of glass. Today, float glass is very popular due to its high quality and relatively low production costs. When producing thinner glass the main concern is to retain its optical quality, which can be deteriorated during the manufacturing process. The most important stage of this process is the floating part, hence is considered to be responsible for the loss in the optical quality. A series of investigations performed on the finite products showed the existence of many short wave patterns, which strongly affect the optical quality of the glass. Our work is concerned with finding the mechanism for wave development, taking into account all possible factors. In this thesis, we model the floating part of the process by an theoretical study of the stability of two superposed fluids confined between two infinite plates and subjected to a large horizontal temperature gradient. Our approach is to take into account the mixed convection effects (viscous shear and buoyancy), neglecting on the other hand the thermo-capillarity effects due to the length of our domain and the presence of a small stabilizing vertical temperature gradient. Both fluids are treated as Newtonian with constant viscosity. They are immiscible, incompressible, have very different properties and have a free surface between them. The lower fluid is a liquid metal with a very small kinematic viscosity, whereas the upper fluid is less dense. The two fluids move with different velocities: the speed of the upper fluid is imposed, whereas the lower fluid moves as a result of buoyancy effects. We examine the problem by means of small perturbation analysis, and obtain a system of two Orr-Sommerfeld equations coupled with two energy equations, and general interface and boundary conditions. We solve the system analytically in the long- and short- wave limit, by using asymptotic expansions with respect to the wave number. Moreover, we write the system in the form of a general eigenvalue problem and we solve the system numerically by using Chebyshev spectral methods for fluid dynamics. The results (both analytical and numerical) show the existence of the small-amplitude travelling waves, which move with constant velocity for wave numbers in the intermediate range. We show that the stability of the system is ensured in the long wave limit, a fact which is in agreement with the real float glass process. We analyze the stability for a wide range of wave numbers, Reynolds, Weber and Grashof number, and explain the physical implications on the dynamics of the problem. The consequences of the linear stability results are discussed. In reality in the float glass process, the temperature strongly influences the viscosity of both molten metal and hot glass, which will have direct consequences on the stability of the system. We investigate the linear stability of two superposed fluids with temperature dependent viscosities by considering a different model for the viscosity dependence of each fluid. Although, the temperature-viscosity relationships for glass and metal are more complex than those used in our computations, our intention is to emphasize the effects of this dependence on the stability of the system. It is known from the literature that in the case of one fluid, the heat, which causes viscosity to decrease along the domain, usually destabilizes the flow. For the two superposed fluids problem we investigate this behaviour and discuss the consequences of the linear stability in this new case.

- Spatially adaptive detection of local disturbances in time series and stochastic processes on the integer lattice Z ^2 (2005)
- In modern textile manufacturing industries, the function of human eyes to detect disturbances in the production processes which yield defective products is switched to cameras. The camera images are analyzed with various methods to detect these disturbances automatically. There are, however, still problems with in particular semi-regular textures which are typical for weaving patterns. We study three parts of that problem of automatic texture analysis: image smoothing, texture synthesis and defect detection. In image smoothing, we develop a two dimensional kernel smoothing method with locally and directionally adaptive bandwidths allowing correlation in the errors. Two approaches are used in synthesising texture. The first is based on constructing a generalized Ising energy function in the Markov Random Field setup, and for the second, we use two-dimensional periodic bootstrap methods for semi-regular texture synthesis. We treat defect detection as multihypothesis testing problem with the null hypothesis representing the absence of defects and the other hypotheses representing various types of defects. We develop a test based on a nonparametric regression setup, and we use the bootstrap for approximating the distribution of our test statistic.

- Maximal Cohen-Macaulay Modules over Two Cubic Hypersurface Singularities (2005)
- In the first part of this work, called Simple node singularity, are computed matrix factorizations of all isomorphism classes, up to shiftings, of rank one and two, graded, indecomposable maximal Cohen--Macaulay (shortly MCM) modules over the affine cone of the simple node singularity. The subsection 2.2 contains a description of all rank two graded MCM R-modules with stable sheafification on the projective cone of R, by their matrix factorizations. It is given also a general description of such modules, of any rank, over a projective curve of arithmetic genus 1, using their matrix factorizations. The non-locally free rank two MCM modules are computed using an alghorithm presented in the Introduction of this work, that gives a matrix factorization of any extension of two MCM modules over a hypersurface. In the second part, called Fermat surface, are classified all graded, rank two, MCM modules over the affine cone of the Fermat surface. For the classification of the orientable rank two graded MCM R-modules, is used a description of the orientable modules (over normal rings) with the help of codimension two Gorenstein ideals, realized by Herzog and Kühl. It is proven (in section 4), that they have skew symmetric matrix factorizations (over any normal hypersurface ring). For the classification of the non-orientable rank two MCM R-modules, we use a similar idea as in the case of the orientable ones, only that the ideal is not any more Gorenstein.