In this article, we give an explicit homotopy between the solutions (i.e. stress, strain, displacement) of the quasistatic linear elastic and nonlinear elastoplastic boundary value problem, where we assume a linear kinematic hardening material law. We give error estimates with respect to the homotopy parameter.
The new international capital standard for credit institutions (“Basel II”) allows banks to use internal rating systems in order to determine the risk weights that are relevant for the calculation of capital charge. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a system that enfolds the main practices and methods existing in the context of credit rating. The aim of this thesis is to give a suggestion of setting up a credit rating system, where the main techniques used in practice are analyzed, presenting some alternatives and considering the problems that can arise from a statistical point of view. Finally, we will set up some guidelines on how to accomplish the challenge of credit scoring. The judgement of the quality of a credit with respect to the probability of default is called credit rating. A method based on a multi-dimensional criterion seems to be natural, due to the numerous effects that can influence this rating. However, owing to governmental rules, the tendency is that typically one-dimensional criteria will be required in the future as a measure for the credit worthiness or for the quality of a credit. The problem as described above can be resolved via transformation of a multi-dimensional data set into a one-dimensional one while keeping some monotonicity properties and also keeping the loss of information (due to the loss of dimensionality) at a minimum level.
We consider optimal design problems for semiconductor devices which are simulated using the energy transport model. We develop a descent algorithm based on the adjoint calculus and present numerical results for a ballistic diode. Further, we compare the optimal doping profile with results computed on basis of the drift diffusion model. Finally, we exploit the model hierarchy and test the space mapping approach, especially the aggressive space mapping algorithm, for the design problem. This yields a significant reduction of numerical costs and programming effort.
* naive examples which show drawbacks of discrete wavelet transform and windowed Fourier transform; * adaptive partition (with a 'best basis' approach) of speech-like signals by means of local trigonometric bases with orthonormal windows. * extraction of formant-like features from the cosine transform; * further proceedingings for classification of vowels or voiced speech are suggested at the end.
This paper presents a method for approximating spherical functions from discrete data of a block-wise grid structure. The essential ingredients of the approach are scaling and wavelet functions within a biorthogonalisation process generated by locally supported zonal kernel functions. In consequence, geophysically and geodetically relevant problems involving rotation-invariant pseudodifferential operators become attackable. A multiresolution analysis is formulated enabling a fast wavelet transform similar to the algorithms known from one-dimensional Euclidean theory.
For the last decade, optimization of beam orientations in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been shown to be successful in improving the treatment plan. Unfortunately, the quality of a set of beam orientations depends heavily on its corresponding beam intensity profiles. Usually, a stochastic selector is used for optimizing beam orientation, and then a single objective inverse treatment planning algorithm is used for the optimization of beam intensity profiles. The overall time needed to solve the inverse planning for every random selection of beam orientations becomes excessive. Recently, considerable improvement has been made in optimizing beam intensity profiles by using multiple objective inverse treatment planning. Such an approach results in a variety of beam intensity profiles for every selection of beam orientations, making the dependence between beam orientations and its intensity profiles less important. This thesis takes advantage of this property to accelerate the optimization process through an approximation of the intensity profiles that are used for multiple selections of beam orientations, saving a considerable amount of calculation time. A dynamic algorithm (DA) and evolutionary algorithm (EA), for beam orientations in IMRT planning will be presented. The DA mimics, automatically, the methods of beam's eye view and observer's view which are recognized in conventional conformal radiation therapy. The EA is based on a dose-volume histogram evaluation function introduced as an attempt to minimize the deviation between the mathematical and clinical optima. To illustrate the efficiency of the algorithms they have been applied to different clinical examples. In comparison to the standard equally spaced beams plans, improvements are reported for both algorithms in all the clinical examples even when, for some cases, fewer beams are used. A smaller number of beams is always desirable without compromising the quality of the treatment plan. It results in a shorter treatment delivery time, which reduces potential errors in terms of patient movements and decreases discomfort.
Selection of new projects is one of the major decision making activities in any company. Given a set of potential projects to invest, a subset which matches the company's strategy and internal resources best has to be selected. In this paper, we propose a multicriteria model for portfolio selection of projects, where we take into consideration that each of the potential projects has several - usually conflicting - values.
This thesis deals with modeling aspects of generalized Newtonian and of non-Newtonian fluids, as well as with development and validation of algorithms used in simulation of such fluids. The main contribution in the modeling part are the introduction and analysis of a new model for the generalized Newtonian fluids, where constitutive equation is of an algebraic form. Distinction between shear and extensional viscosities leads to anisotropic viscosity model. It can be considered as a natural extension of the well known (isotropic viscosity) Carreau model, which deals only with shear viscosity properties of the fluid. The proposed model takes additionally into account extensional viscosity properties. Numerical results show that the anisotropic viscosity model gives much better agreement with experimental observations than the isotropic one. Another contribution of the thesis consists of the development and analysis of robust and reliable algorithms for simulation of generalized Newtonian fluids. For such fluids the momentum equations are strongly coupled through mixed derivatives appearing in the viscous term (unlike the case of Newtonian fluids). It is shown in this thesis, that a careful treatment of those derivatives is essential in deriving robust algorithms. A modification of a standard SIMPLE-like algorithm is given, where all the viscous terms from the momentum equations are discretized in an implicit manner. Moreover, it is shown that a block diagonal preconditioner to the viscous operator is good enough to be used in simulations. Furthermore, different solution techniques, namely projection type methods (consists of solving momentum equations and pressure correction equation) and fully coupled methods (momentum and continuity equations are solved together), are compared. It is shown, that explicit discretization of the mixed derivatives lead to stability problems. Further, analytical estimates of eigenvalue distribution for three different preconditioners, applied to the transformed system arising after discretization and linearization of the momentum and continuity equations, are provided. We propose to apply a block Gauss-Seidel preconditioner to the transformed system. The analysis shows, that this preconditioner is able to cluster eigenvalues around unity independent of the transformation step. It is not the case for other preconditioners applied to the transformed system as discussed in the thesis. The block Gauss-Seidel preconditioner has also shown the best behavior (among all preconditioners discussed in the thesis) in numerical experiments. Further contribution consists of comparison and validation of numerical algorithms applied in simulations of non-Newtonian fluids modeled by time integral constitutive equations. Numerical results from simulations of dilute polymer solutions, described by the integral Oldroyd B model, have shown very good quantitative agreement with the results obtained by differential Oldroyd B counterpart in 4:1 planar contraction domain at low Weissenberg numbers. In this case, the Weissenberg number is changed by changing the relaxation time. However, contrary to the differential Oldroyd B model, the integral one allows to perform stable simulations also in the range of high Weissenberg numbers. Moreover, very good agreement with experimental observations has been achieved. Simulations of concentrated polymer solutions (polystyrene and polybutadiene solutions), modeled by the integral Doi Edwards model, supplemented by chain length fluctuations, have shown very good qualitative agreement with the results obtained by its differential approximation in 4:1:4 constriction domain. Again, much higher Weissenberg numbers can be achieved when the integral model is used. Moreover, very good quantitative results with experimental data of polystyrene solution for the first normal stress difference and shear viscosity defined here as the quotient of a shear stress and a shear rate. Finally, comparison of the two methods used for approximating the time integral constitutive equation, namely Deformation Field Method (DFM) and Backward Lagrangian Particle Method (BLPM), is performed. In BLPM the particle paths are recalculated at every time step of the simulations, what has never been tried before. The results have shown, that in the considered geometries both methods give similar results.
Multileaf Collimators (MLC) consist of (currently 20-100) pairs of movable metal leaves which are used to block radiation in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). The leaves modulate a uniform source of radiation to achieve given intensity profiles. The modulation process is modeled by the decomposition of a given non-negative integer matrix into a non-negative linear combination of matrices with the (strict) consecutive ones property.
This thesis discusses methods for the classification of finite projective planes via exhaustive search. In the main part the author classifies all projective planes of order 16 admitting a large quasiregular group of collineations. This is done by a complete search using the computer algebra system GAP. Computational methods for the construction of relative difference sets are discussed. These methods are implemented in a GAP-package, which is available separately. As another result --found in cooperation with U. Dempwolff-- the projective planes defined by planar monomials are classified. Furthermore the full automorphism group of the non-translation planes defined by planar monomials are classified.