## Fachbereich Mathematik

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In this thesis, the quasi-static Biot poroelasticity system in bounded multilayered domains in one and three dimensions is studied. In more detail, in the one-dimensional case, a finite volume discretization for the Biot system with discontinuous coefficients is derived. The discretization results in a difference scheme with harmonic averaging of the coefficients. Detailed theoretical analysis of the obtained discrete model is performed. Error estimates, which establish convergence rates for both primary as well as flux unknowns are derived. Besides, modified and more accurate discretizations, which can be applied when the interface position coincides with a grid node, are obtained. These discretizations yield second order convergence of the fluxes of the problem. Finally, the solver for the solution of the produced system of linear equations is developed and extensively tested. A number of numerical experiments, which confirm the theoretical considerations are performed. In the three-dimensional case, the finite volume discretization of the system involves construction of special interpolating polynomials in the dual volumes. These polynomials are derived so that they satisfy the same continuity conditions across the interface, as the original system of PDEs. This technique allows to obtain such a difference scheme, which provides accurate computation of the primary as well as of the flux unknowns, including the points adjacent to the interface. Numerical experiments, based on the obtained discretization, show second order convergence for auxiliary problems with known analytical solutions. A multigrid solver, which incorporates the features of the discrete model, is developed in order to solve efficiently the linear system, produced by the finite volume discretization of the three-dimensional problem. The crucial point is to derive problem-dependent restriction and prolongation operators. Such operators are a well-known remedy for the scalar PDEs with discontinuous coefficients. Here, these operators are derived for the system of PDEs, taking into account interdependence of different unknowns within the system. In the derivation, the interpolating polynomials from the finite volume discretization are employed again, linking thus the discretization and the solution processes. The developed multigrid solver is tested on several model problems. Numerical experiments show that, due to the proper problem-dependent intergrid transfer, the multigrid solver is robust with respect to the discontinuities of the coefficients of the system. In the end, the poroelasticity system with discontinuous coefficients is used to model a real problem. The Biot model, describing this problem, is treated numerically, i.e., discretized by the developed finite volume techniques and then solved by the constructed multigrid solver. Physical characteristics of the process, such as displacement of the skeleton, pressure of the fluid, components of the stress tensor, are calculated and then presented at certain cross-sections.

The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a numerical solver for the Navier-Stokes equations, based on an underlying molecular dynamic model. Recently, it has been extended towardsthe simulation of complex fluids. We use the asymptotic expansion technique to investigate the standard scheme, the initialization problem and possible developments towards moving boundary and fluid-structure interaction problems. At the same time, it will be shown how the mathematical analysis can be used to understand and improve the algorithm. First of all, we elaborate the tool "asymptotic analysis", proposing a general formulation of the technique and explaining the methods and the strategy we use for the investigation. A first standard application to the LBM is described, which leads to the approximation of the Navier-Stokes solution starting from the lattice Boltzmann equation. As next, we extend the analysis to investigate origin and dynamics of initial layers. A class of initialization algorithms to generate accurate initial values within the LB framework is described in detail. Starting from existing routines, we will be able to improve the schemes in term of efficiency and accuracy. Then we study the features of a simple moving boundary LBM. In particular, we concentrate on the initialization of new fluid nodes created by the variations of the computational fluid domain. An overview of existing possible choices is presented. Performing a careful analysis of the problem we propose a modified algorithm, which produces satisfactory results. Finally, to set up an LBM for fluid structure interaction, efficient routines to evaluate forces are required. We describe the Momentum Exchange algorithm (MEA). Precise accuracy estimates are derived, and the analysis leads to the construction of an improved method to evaluate the interface stresses. In conclusion, we test the defined code and validate the results of the analysis on several simple benchmarks. From the theoretical point of view, in the thesis we have developed a general formulation of the asymptotic expansion, which is expected to offer a more flexible tool in the investigation of numerical methods. The main practical contribution offered by this work is the detailed analysis of the numerical method. It allows to understand and improve the algorithms, and construct new routines, which can be considered as starting points for future researches.

In this thesis we classify simple coherent sheaves on Kodaira fibers of types II, III and IV (cuspidal and tacnode cubic curves and a plane configuration of three concurrent lines). Indecomposable vector bundles on smooth elliptic curves were classified in 1957 by Atiyah. In works of Burban, Drozd and Greuel it was shown that the categories of vector bundles and coherent sheaves on cycles of projective lines are tame. It turns out, that all other degenerations of elliptic curves are vector-bundle-wild. Nevertheless, we prove that the category of coherent sheaves of an arbitrary reduced plane cubic curve, (including the mentioned Kodaira fibers) is brick-tame. The main technical tool of our approach is the representation theory of bocses. Although, this technique was mainly used for purely theoretical purposes, we illustrate its computational potential for investigating tame behavior in wild categories. In particular, it allows to prove that a simple vector bundle on a reduced cubic curve is determined by its rank, multidegree and determinant, generalizing Atiyah's classification. Our approach leads to an interesting class of bocses, which can be wild but are brick-tame.

The nowadays increasing number of fields where large quantities of data are collected generates an emergent demand for methods for extracting relevant information from huge databases. Amongst the various existing data mining models, decision trees are widely used since they represent a good trade-off between accuracy and interpretability. However, one of their main problems is that they are very instable, which complicates the process of the knowledge discovery because the users are disturbed by the different decision trees generated from almost the same input learning samples. In the current work, binary tree classifiers are analyzed and partially improved. The analysis of tree classifiers goes from their topology from the graph theory point of view to the creation of a new tree classification model by means of combining decision trees and soft comparison operators (Mlynski, 2003) with the purpose to not only overcome the well known instability problem of decision trees, but also in order to confer the ability of dealing with uncertainty. In order to study and compare the structural stability of tree classifiers, we propose an instability coefficient which is based on the notion of Lipschitz continuity and offer a metric to measure the proximity between decision trees. This thesis converges towards its main part with the presentation of our model ``Soft Operators Decision Tree\'\' (SODT). Mainly, we describe its construction, application and the consistency of the mathematical formulation behind this. Finally we show the results of the implementation of SODT and compare numerically the stability and accuracy of a SODT and a crisp DT. The numerical simulations support the stability hypothesis and a smaller tendency to overfitting the training data with SODT than with crisp DT is observed. A further aspect of this inclusion of soft operators is that we choose them in a way so that the resulting goodness function (used by this method) is differentiable and thus allows to calculate the best split points by means of gradient descent methods. The main drawback of SODT is the incorporation of the unpreciseness factor, which increases the complexity of the algorithm.