## Fachbereich Mathematik

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- 2006 (31) (remove)

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- Doctoral Thesis (13)
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#### Keywords

- Elastic BVP (2)
- Elastisches RWP (2)
- Elastoplastisches RWP (2)
- Hysterese (2)
- IMRT (2)
- Multivariate Approximation (2)
- Optimization (2)
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- approximate identity (2)

- Aspects of Optimal Capital Structure and Default Risk (2006)
- In this thesis, we have dealt with two modeling approaches of the credit risk, namely the structural (firm value) and the reduced form. In the former one, the firm value is modeled by a stochastic process and the first hitting time of this stochastic process to a given boundary defines the default time of the firm. In the existing literature, the stochastic process, triggering the firm value, has been generally chosen as a diffusion process. Therefore, on one hand it is possible to obtain closed form solutions for the pricing problems of credit derivatives and on the other hand the optimal capital structure of a firm can be analysed by obtaining closed form solutions of firm's corporate securities such as; equity value, debt value and total firm value, see Leland(1994). We have extended this approach by modeling the firm value as a jump-diffusion process. The choice of the jump-diffusion process was a crucial step to obtain closed form solutions for corporate securities. As a result, we have chosen a jump-diffusion process with double exponentially distributed jump heights, which enabled us to analyse the effects of jump on the optimal capital structure of a firm. In the second part of the thesis, by following the reduced form models, we have assumed that the default is triggered by the first jump of a Cox process. Further, by following Schönbucher(2005), we have modeled the forward default intensity of a firm as a geometric Brownian motion and derived pricing formulas for credit default swap options in a more general setup than the ones in Schönbucher(2005).

- Locally Supported Approximate Identities on the Unit Ball (2006)
- We present a constructive theory for locally supported approximate identities on the unit ball in \(\mathbb{R}^3\). The uniform convergence of the convolutions of the derived kernels with an arbitrary continuous function \(f\) to \(f\), i.e. the defining property of an approximate identity, is proved. Moreover, an explicit representation for a class of such kernels is given. The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com

- Optimization of Beam Orientation in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning (2006)
- For the last decade, optimization of beam orientations in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been shown to be successful in improving the treatment plan. Unfortunately, the quality of a set of beam orientations depends heavily on its corresponding beam intensity profiles. Usually, a stochastic selector is used for optimizing beam orientation, and then a single objective inverse treatment planning algorithm is used for the optimization of beam intensity profiles. The overall time needed to solve the inverse planning for every random selection of beam orientations becomes excessive. Recently, considerable improvement has been made in optimizing beam intensity profiles by using multiple objective inverse treatment planning. Such an approach results in a variety of beam intensity profiles for every selection of beam orientations, making the dependence between beam orientations and its intensity profiles less important. This thesis takes advantage of this property to accelerate the optimization process through an approximation of the intensity profiles that are used for multiple selections of beam orientations, saving a considerable amount of calculation time. A dynamic algorithm (DA) and evolutionary algorithm (EA), for beam orientations in IMRT planning will be presented. The DA mimics, automatically, the methods of beam's eye view and observer's view which are recognized in conventional conformal radiation therapy. The EA is based on a dose-volume histogram evaluation function introduced as an attempt to minimize the deviation between the mathematical and clinical optima. To illustrate the efficiency of the algorithms they have been applied to different clinical examples. In comparison to the standard equally spaced beams plans, improvements are reported for both algorithms in all the clinical examples even when, for some cases, fewer beams are used. A smaller number of beams is always desirable without compromising the quality of the treatment plan. It results in a shorter treatment delivery time, which reduces potential errors in terms of patient movements and decreases discomfort.

- Inflation-linked Products and Optimal Investment with Macro Derivatives (2006)
- In this thesis diverse problems concerning inflation-linked products are dealt with. To start with, two models for inflation are presented, including a geometric Brownian motion for consumer price index itself and an extended Vasicek model for inflation rate. For both suggested models the pricing formulas of inflation-linked products are derived using the risk-neutral valuation techniques. As a result Black and Scholes type closed form solutions for a call option on inflation index for a Brownian motion model and inflation evolution for an extended Vasicek model as well as for an inflation-linked bond are calculated. These results have been already presented in Korn and Kruse (2004) [17]. In addition to these inflation-linked products, for the both inflation models the pricing formulas of a European put option on inflation, an inflation cap and floor, an inflation swap and an inflation swaption are derived. Consequently, basing on the derived pricing formulas and assuming the geometric Brownian motion process for an inflation index, different continuous-time portfolio problems as well as hedging problems are studied using the martingale techniques as well as stochastic optimal control methods. These utility optimization problems are continuous-time portfolio problems in different financial market setups and in addition with a positive lower bound constraint on the final wealth of the investor. When one summarizes all the optimization problems studied in this work, one will have the complete picture of the inflation-linked market and both counterparts of market-participants, sellers as well as buyers of inflation-linked financial products. One of the interesting results worth mentioning here is naturally the fact that a regular risk-averse investor would like to sell and not buy inflation-linked products due to the high price of inflation-linked bonds for example and an underperformance of inflation-linked bonds compared to the conventional risk-free bonds. The relevance of this observation is proved by investigating a simple optimization problem for the extended Vasicek process, where as a result we still have an underperforming inflation-linked bond compared to the conventional bond. This situation does not change, when one switches to an optimization of expected utility from the purchasing power, because in its nature it is only a change of measure, where we have a different deflator. The negativity of the optimal portfolio process for a normal investor is in itself an interesting aspect, but it does not affect the optimality of handling inflation-linked products compared to the situation not including these products into investment portfolio. In the following, hedging problems are considered as a modeling of the other half of inflation market that is inflation-linked products buyers. Natural buyers of these inflation-linked products are obviously institutions that have payment obligations in the future that are inflation connected. That is why we consider problems of hedging inflation-indexed payment obligations with different financial assets. The role of inflation-linked products in the hedging portfolio is shown to be very important by analyzing two alternative optimal hedging strategies, where in the first one an investor is allowed to trade as inflation-linked bond and in the second one he is not allowed to include an inflation-linked bond into his hedging portfolio. Technically this is done by restricting our original financial market, which is made of a conventional bond, inflation index and a stock correlated with inflation index, to the one, where an inflation index is excluded. As a whole, this thesis presents a wide view on inflation-linked products: inflation modeling, pricing aspects of inflation-linked products, various continuous-time portfolio problems with inflation-linked products as well as hedging of inflation-related payment obligations.

- The Semiconductor Model Hierarchy in Optimal Dopant Profiling (2006)
- We consider optimal design problems for semiconductor devices which are simulated using the energy transport model. We develop a descent algorithm based on the adjoint calculus and present numerical results for a ballistic diode. Further, we compare the optimal doping profile with results computed on basis of the drift diffusion model. Finally, we exploit the model hierarchy and test the space mapping approach, especially the aggressive space mapping algorithm, for the design problem. This yields a significant reduction of numerical costs and programming effort.

- Decomposition of Matrices and Static Multileaf Collimators: A Survey (2006)
- Multileaf Collimators (MLC) consist of (currently 20-100) pairs of movable metal leaves which are used to block radiation in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). The leaves modulate a uniform source of radiation to achieve given intensity profiles. The modulation process is modeled by the decomposition of a given non-negative integer matrix into a non-negative linear combination of matrices with the (strict) consecutive ones property.

- Semi-Simultaneous Flows and Binary Constrained (Integer) Linear Programs (2006)
- Linear and integer programs are considered whose coefficient matrices can be partitioned into K consecutive ones matrices. Mimicking the special case of K=1 which is well-known to be equivalent to a network flow problem we show that these programs can be transformed to a generalized network flow problem which we call semi-simultaneous (se-sim) network flow problem. Feasibility conditions for se-sim flows are established and methods for finding initial feasible se-sim flows are derived. Optimal se-sim flows are characterized by a generalization of the negative cycle theorem for the minimum cost flow problem. The issue of improving a given flow is addressed both from a theoretical and practical point of view. The paper concludes with a summary and some suggestions for possible future work in this area.

- Biorthogonal Locally Supported Wavelets on the Sphere Based on Zonal Kernel Functions (2006)
- This paper presents a method for approximating spherical functions from discrete data of a block-wise grid structure. The essential ingredients of the approach are scaling and wavelet functions within a biorthogonalisation process generated by locally supported zonal kernel functions. In consequence, geophysically and geodetically relevant problems involving rotation-invariant pseudodifferential operators become attackable. A multiresolution analysis is formulated enabling a fast wavelet transform similar to the algorithms known from one-dimensional Euclidean theory.

- Connectedness of Efficient Solutions in Multiple Objective Combinatorial Optimization (2006)
- Connectedness of efficient solutions is a powerful property in multiple objective combinatorial optimization since it allows the construction of the complete efficient set using neighborhood search techniques. In this paper we show that, however, most of the classical multiple objective combinatorial optimization problems do not possess the connectedness property in general, including, among others, knapsack problems (and even several special cases of knapsack problems) and linear assignment problems. We also extend already known non-connectedness results for several optimization problems on graphs like shortest path, spanning tree and minimum cost flow problems. Different concepts of connectedness are discussed in a formal setting, and numerical tests are performed for different variants of the knapsack problem to analyze the likelihood with which non-connected adjacency graphs occur in randomly generated problem instances.

- Hub Cover and Hub Center Problems (2006)
- Using covering problems (CoP) combined with binary search is a well-known and successful solution approach for solving continuous center problems. In this paper, we show that this is also true for center hub location problems in networks. We introduce and compare various formulations for hub covering problems (HCoP) and analyse the feasibility polyhedron of the most promising one. Computational results using benchmark instances are presented. These results show that the new solution approach performs better in most examples.