Cloudy inhomogenities in artificial fabrics are graded by a fast method which is based on a Laplacian pyramid decomposition of the fabric image. This band-pass representation takes into account the scale character of the cloudiness. A quality measure of the entire cloudiness is obtained as a weighted mean over the variances of all scales.
The ideas of texture analysis by means of the structure tensor are combined with the scale-space concept of anisotropic diffusion filtering. In contrast to many other nonlinear diffusion techniques, the proposed one uses a diffusion tensor instead of a scalar diffusivity. This allows true anisotropic behaviour. The preferred diffusion direction is determined according to the phase angle of the structure tensor. The diffusivity in this direction is increasing with the local coherence of the signal. This filter is constructed in such a way that it gives a mathematically well-funded scale-space representation of the original image. Experiments demonstrate its usefulness for the processing of interrupted one-dimensional structures such as fingerprint and fabric images.
A survey on continuous, semidiscrete and discrete well-posedness and scale-space results for a class of nonlinear diffusion filters is presented. This class does not require any monotony assumption (comparison principle) and, thus, allows image restoration as well. The theoretical results include existence, uniqueness, continuous dependence on the initial image, maximum-minimum principles, average grey level invariance, smoothing Lyapunov functionals, and convergence to a constant steady state.
A way to derive consistently kinetic models for vehicular traffic from microscopic follow the leader models is presented. The obtained class of kinetic equations is investigated. Explicit examples for kinetic models are developed with a particular emphasis on obtaining models, that give realistic results. For space homogeneous traffic flow situations numerical examples are given including stationary distributions and fundamental diagrams.
In the standard approach, particle methods for the Boltzmann equation are obtained using an explicit time discretization of the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation. This kind of discretization leads to a restriction of the discretization parameter as well as on the differential cross section in the case of the general Boltzmann equation. Recently, it was shown, how to construct an implicit particle scheme for the Boltzmann equation with Maxwellian molecules. The present paper combines both approaches using a linear combination of explicit and implicit discretizations. It is shown that the new method leads to a second order particle method, when using an equiweighting of explicit and implicit discretization.
The paper presents a numerical simulation technique - based on the well-known particle methods - for the stationary, one-dimensional Boltzmann equation for Maxwellian molecules. In contrast to the standard splitting methods, where one works with the instationary equation, the current approach simulates the direct solution of the stationary problem. The model problem investigated is the heat transfer between two parallel plates in the rarefied gas regime. An iteration process is introduced which leads to the stationary solution of the exact - space discretized - Boltzmann equation, in the sense of weak convergence.
The paper presents numerical results on the simulation of boundary value problems for the Boltzmann equation in one and two dimensions. In the one-dimensional case, we use prescribed fluxes at the left and diffusive conditions on the right end of a slab to study the resulting steady state solution. Moreover, we compute the numerical density function in velocity space and compare the result with the Chapman-Enskog distribution obtained in the limit for continuous media. The aim of the two-dimensional simulations is to investigate the possibility of a symmetry break in the numerical solution.