## Fachbereich Mathematik

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- Fachbereich Mathematik (192)
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- Doctoral Thesis (192) (remove)

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- Advantage of Filtering for Portfolio Optimization in Financial Markets with Partial Information (2016)
- In a financial market we consider three types of investors trading with a finite time horizon with access to a bank account as well as multliple stocks: the fully informed investor, the partially informed investor whose only source of information are the stock prices and an investor who does not use this infor- mation. The drift is modeled either as following linear Gaussian dynamics or as being a continuous time Markov chain with finite state space. The optimization problem is to maximize expected utility of terminal wealth. The case of partial information is based on the use of filtering techniques. Conditions to ensure boundedness of the expected value of the filters are developed, in the Markov case also for positivity. For the Markov modulated drift, boundedness of the expected value of the filter relates strongly to port- folio optimization: effects are studied and quantified. The derivation of an equivalent, less dimensional market is presented next. It is a type of Mutual Fund Theorem that is shown here. Gains and losses eminating from the use of filtering are then discussed in detail for different market parameters: For infrequent trading we find that both filters need to comply with the boundedness conditions to be an advan- tage for the investor. Losses are minimal in case the filters are advantageous. At an increasing number of stocks, again boundedness conditions need to be met. Losses in this case depend strongly on the added stocks. The relation of boundedness and portfolio optimization in the Markov model leads here to increasing losses for the investor if the boundedness condition is to hold for all numbers of stocks. In the Markov case, the losses for different numbers of states are negligible in case more states are assumed then were originally present. Assuming less states leads to high losses. Again for the Markov model, a simplification of the complex optimal trading strategy for power utility in the partial information setting is shown to cause only minor losses. If the market parameters are such that shortselling and borrowing constraints are in effect, these constraints may lead to big losses depending on how much effect the constraints have. They can though also be an advantage for the investor in case the expected value of the filters does not meet the conditions for boundedness. All results are implemented and illustrated with the corresponding numerical findings.

- Linear diffusions conditioned on long-term survival (2016)
- We investigate the long-term behaviour of diffusions on the non-negative real numbers under killing at some random time. Killing can occur at zero as well as in the interior of the state space. The diffusion follows a stochastic differential equation driven by a Brownian motion. The diffusions we are working with will almost surely be killed. In large parts of this thesis we only assume the drift coefficient to be continuous. Further, we suppose that zero is regular and that infinity is natural. We condition the diffusion on survival up to time t and let t tend to infinity looking for a limiting behaviour.

- Utility-Based Risk Measures and Time Consistency of Dynamic Risk Measures (2016)
- This thesis deals with risk measures based on utility functions and time consistency of dynamic risk measures. It is therefore aimed at readers interested in both, the theory of static and dynamic financial risk measures in the sense of Artzner, Delbaen, Eber and Heath [7], [8] and the theory of preferences in the tradition of von Neumann and Morgenstern [134]. A main contribution of this thesis is the introduction of optimal expected utility (OEU) risk measures as a new class of utility-based risk measures. We introduce OEU, investigate its main properties, and its applicability to risk measurement and put it in perspective to alternative risk measures and notions of certainty equivalents. To the best of our knowledge, OEU is the only existing utility-based risk measure that is (non-trivial and) coherent if the utility function u has constant relative risk aversion. We present several different risk measures that can be derived with special choices of u and illustrate that OEU reacts in a more sensitive way to slight changes of the probability of a financial loss than value at risk (V@R) and average value at risk. Further, we propose implied risk aversion as a coherent rating methodology for retail structured products (RSPs). Implied risk aversion is based on optimal expected utility risk measures and, in contrast to standard V@R-based ratings, takes into account both the upside potential and the downside risks of such products. In addition, implied risk aversion is easily interpreted in terms of an individual investor's risk aversion: A product is attractive (unattractive) for an investor if its implied risk aversion is higher (lower) than his individual risk aversion. We illustrate this approach in a case study with more than 15,000 warrants on DAX ® and find that implied risk aversion is able to identify favorable products; in particular, implied risk aversion is not necessarily increasing with respect to the strikes of call warrants. Another main focus of this thesis is on consistency of dynamic risk measures. To this end, we study risk measures on the space of distributions, discuss concavity on the level of distributions and slightly generalize Weber's [137] findings on the relation of time consistent dynamic risk measures to static risk measures to the case of dynamic risk measures with time-dependent parameters. Finally, this thesis investigates how recursively composed dynamic risk measures in discrete time, which are time consistent by construction, can be related to corresponding dynamic risk measures in continuous time. We present different approaches to establish this link and outline the theoretical basis and the practical benefits of this relation. The thesis concludes with a numerical implementation of this theory.

- Recursive Utility and Stochastic Differential Utility: From Discrete to Continuous Time (2016)
- In this thesis, mathematical research questions related to recursive utility and stochastic differential utility (SDU) are explored. First, a class of backward equations under nonlinear expectations is investigated: Existence and uniqueness of solutions are established, and the issues of stability and discrete-time approximation are addressed. It is then shown that backward equations of this class naturally appear as a continuous-time limit in the context of recursive utility with nonlinear expectations. Then, the Epstein-Zin parametrization of SDU is studied. The focus is on specifications with both relative risk aversion and elasitcity of intertemporal substitution greater that one. A concave utility functional is constructed and a utility gradient inequality is established. Finally, consumption-portfolio problems with recursive preferences and unspanned risk are investigated. The investor's optimal strategies are characterized by a specific semilinear partial differential equation. The solution of this equation is constructed by a fixed point argument, and a corresponding efficient and accurate method to calculate optimal strategies numerically is given.

- New Aspects of Inflation Modeling (2016)
- Inflation modeling is a very important tool for conducting an efficient monetary policy. This doctoral thesis reviewed inflation models, in particular the Phillips curve models of inflation dynamics. We focused on a well known and widely used model, the so-called three equation new Keynesian model which is a system of equations consisting of a new Keynesian Phillips curve (NKPC), an investment and saving (IS) curve and an interest rate rule. We gave a detailed derivation of these equations. The interest rate rule used in this model is normally determined by using a Lagrangian method to solve an optimal control problem constrained by a standard discrete time NKPC which describes the inflation dynamics and an IS curve that represents the output gaps dynamics. In contrast to the real world, this method assumes that the policy makers intervene continuously. This means that the costs resulting from the change in the interest rates are ignored. We showed also that there are approximation errors made, when one log-linearizes non linear equations, by doing the derivation of the standard discrete time NKPC. We agreed with other researchers as mentioned in this thesis, that errors which result from ignoring such log-linear approximation errors and the costs of altering interest rates by determining interest rate rule, can lead to a suboptimal interest rate rule and hence to non-optimal paths of output gaps and inflation rate. To overcome such a problem, we proposed a stochastic optimal impulse control method. We formulated the problem as a stochastic optimal impulse control problem by considering the costs of change in interest rates and the approximation error terms. In order to formulate this problem, we first transform the standard discrete time NKPC and the IS curve into their high-frequency versions and hence into their continuous time versions where error terms are described by a zero mean Gaussian white noise with a finite and constant variance. After formulating this problem, we use the quasi-variational inequality approach to solve analytically a special case of the central bank problem, where an inflation rate is supposed to be on target and a central bank has to optimally control output gap dynamics. This method gives an optimal control band in which output gap process has to be maintained and an optimal control strategy, which includes the optimal size of intervention and optimal intervention time, that can be used to keep the process into the optimal control band. Finally, using a numerical example, we examined the impact of some model parameters on optimal control strategy. The results show that an increase in the output gap volatility as well as in the fixed and proportional costs of the change in interest rate lead to an increase in the width of the optimal control band. In this case, the optimal intervention requires the central bank to wait longer before undertaking another control action.

- Coercive functions from a topological viewpoint and properties of minimizing sets of convex functions appearing in image restoration (2015)
- Many tasks in image processing can be tackled by modeling an appropriate data fidelity term \(\Phi: \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R} \cup \{+\infty\}\) and then solve one of the regularized minimization problems \begin{align*} &{}(P_{1,\tau}) \qquad \mathop{\rm argmin}_{x \in \mathbb R^n} \big\{ \Phi(x) \;{\rm s.t.}\; \Psi(x) \leq \tau \big\} \\ &{}(P_{2,\lambda}) \qquad \mathop{\rm argmin}_{x \in \mathbb R^n} \{ \Phi(x) + \lambda \Psi(x) \}, \; \lambda > 0 \end{align*} with some function \(\Psi: \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R} \cup \{+\infty\}\) and a good choice of the parameter(s). Two tasks arise naturally here: \begin{align*} {}& \text{1. Study the solver sets \({\rm SOL}(P_{1,\tau})\) and \({\rm SOL}(P_{2,\lambda})\) of the minimization problems.} \\ {}& \text{2. Ensure that the minimization problems have solutions.} \end{align*} This thesis provides contributions to both tasks: Regarding the first task for a more special setting we prove that there are intervals \((0,c)\) and \((0,d)\) such that the setvalued curves \begin{align*} \tau \mapsto {}& {\rm SOL}(P_{1,\tau}), \; \tau \in (0,c) \\ {} \lambda \mapsto {}& {\rm SOL}(P_{2,\lambda}), \; \lambda \in (0,d) \end{align*} are the same, besides an order reversing parameter change \(g: (0,c) \rightarrow (0,d)\). Moreover we show that the solver sets are changing all the time while \(\tau\) runs from \(0\) to \(c\) and \(\lambda\) runs from \(d\) to \(0\). In the presence of lower semicontinuity the second task is done if we have additionally coercivity. We regard lower semicontinuity and coercivity from a topological point of view and develop a new technique for proving lower semicontinuity plus coercivity. Dropping any lower semicontinuity assumption we also prove a theorem on the coercivity of a sum of functions.

- Upscaling Approaches for Nonlinear Processes in Lithium-Ion Batteries (2015)
- Lithium-ion batteries are broadly used nowadays in all kinds of portable electronics, such as laptops, cell phones, tablets, e-book readers, digital cameras, etc. They are preferred to other types of rechargeable batteries due to their superior characteristics, such as light weight and high energy density, no memory effect, and a big number of charge/discharge cycles. The high demand and applicability of Li-ion batteries naturally give rise to the unceasing necessity of developing better batteries in terms of performance and lifetime. The aim of the mathematical modelling of Li-ion batteries is to help engineers test different battery configurations and electrode materials faster and cheaper. Lithium-ion batteries are multiscale systems. A typical Li-ion battery consists of multiple connected electrochemical battery cells. Each cell has two electrodes - anode and cathode, as well as a separator between them that prevents a short circuit. Both electrodes have porous structure composed of two phases - solid and electrolyte. We call macroscale the lengthscale of the whole electrode and microscale - the lengthscale at which we can distinguish the complex porous structure of the electrodes. We start from a Li-ion battery model derived on the microscale. The model is based on nonlinear diffusion type of equations for the transport of Lithium ions and charges in the electrolyte and in the active material. Electrochemical reactions on the solid-electrolyte interface couple the two phases. The interface kinetics is modelled by the highly nonlinear Butler-Volmer interface conditions. Direct numerical simulations with standard methods, such as the Finite Element Method or Finite Volume Method, lead to ill-conditioned problems with a huge number of degrees of freedom which are difficult to solve. Therefore, the aim of this work is to derive upscaled models on the lengthscale of the whole electrode so that we do not have to resolve all the small-scale features of the porous microstructure thus reducing the computational time and cost. We do this by applying two different upscaling techniques - the Asymptotic Homogenization Method and the Multiscale Finite Element Method (MsFEM). We consider the electrolyte and the solid as two self-complementary perforated domains and we exploit this idea with both upscaling methods. The first method is restricted only to periodic media and periodically oscillating solutions while the second method can be applied to randomly oscillating solutions and is based on the Finite Element Method framework. We apply the Asymptotic Homogenization Method to derive a coupled macro-micro upscaled model under the assumption of periodic electrode microstructure. A crucial step in the homogenization procedure is the upscaling of the Butler-Volmer interface conditions. We rigorously determine the asymptotic order of the interface exchange current densities and we perform a comprehensive numerical study in order to validate the derived homogenized Li-ion battery model. In order to upscale the microscale battery problem in the case of random electrode microstructure we apply the MsFEM, extended to problems in perforated domains with Neumann boundary conditions on the holes. We conduct a detailed numerical investigation of the proposed algorithm and we show numerical convergence of the method that we design. We also apply the developed technique to a simplified two-dimensional Li-ion battery problem and we show numerical convergence of the solution obtained with the MsFEM to the reference microscale one.

- Simulation of Degradation Processes in Lithium-Ion Batteries (2015)
- Lithium-ion batteries are increasingly becoming an ubiquitous part of our everyday life - they are present in mobile phones, laptops, tools, cars, etc. However, there are still many concerns about their longevity and their safety. In this work we focus on the simulation of several degradation mechanisms on the microscopic scale, where one can resolve the active materials inside the electrodes of the lithium-ion batteries as porous structures. We mainly study two aspects - heat generation and mechanical stress. For the former we consider an electrochemical non-isothermal model on the spatially resolved porous scale to observe the temperature increase inside a battery cell, as well as to observe the individual heat sources to assess their contributions to the total heat generation. As a result from our experiments, we determined that the temperature has very small spatial variance for our test cases and thus allows for an ODE formulation of the heat equation. The second aspect that we consider is the generation of mechanical stress as a result of the insertion of lithium ions in the electrode materials. We study two approaches - using small strain models and finite strain models. For the small strain models, the initial geometry and the current geometry coincide. The model considers a diffusion equation for the lithium ions and equilibrium equation for the mechanical stress. First, we test a single perforated cylindrical particle using different boundary conditions for the displacement and with Neumann boundary conditions for the diffusion equation. We also test for cylindrical particles, but with boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in the electrodes coming from an isothermal electrochemical model for the whole battery cell. For the finite strain models we take in consideration the deformation of the initial geometry as a result of the intercalation and the mechanical stress. We compare two elastic models to study the sensitivity of the predicted elastic behavior on the specific model used. We also consider a softening of the active material dependent on the concentration of the lithium ions and using data for silicon electrodes. We recover the general behavior of the stress from known physical experiments. Some models, like the mechanical models we use, depend on the local values of the concentration to predict the mechanical stress. In that sense we perform a short comparative study between the Finite Element Method with tetrahedral elements and the Finite Volume Method with voxel volumes for an isothermal electrochemical model. The spatial discretizations of the PDEs are done using the Finite Element Method. For some models we have discontinuous quantities where we adapt the FEM accordingly. The time derivatives are discretized using the implicit Backward Euler method. The nonlinear systems are linearized using the Newton method. All of the discretized models are implemented in a C++ framework developed during the thesis.

- Isogeometric Finite Element Analysis of Nonlinear Structural Vibrations (2015)
- In this thesis we present a new method for nonlinear frequency response analysis of mechanical vibrations. For an efficient spatial discretization of nonlinear partial differential equations of continuum mechanics we employ the concept of isogeometric analysis. Isogeometric finite element methods have already been shown to possess advantages over classical finite element discretizations in terms of exact geometry representation and higher accuracy of numerical approximations using spline functions. For computing nonlinear frequency response to periodic external excitations, we rely on the well-established harmonic balance method. It expands the solution of the nonlinear ordinary differential equation system resulting from spatial discretization as a truncated Fourier series in the frequency domain. A fundamental aspect for enabling large-scale and industrial application of the method is model order reduction of the spatial discretization of the equation of motion. Therefore we propose the utilization of a modal projection method enhanced with modal derivatives, providing second-order information. We investigate the concept of modal derivatives theoretically and using computational examples we demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of the reduction method for nonlinear static computations and vibration analysis. Furthermore, we extend nonlinear vibration analysis to incompressible elasticity using isogeometric mixed finite element methods.

- Isogeometric Shell Discretizations for Flexible Multibody Dynamics (2015)
- This work aims at including nonlinear elastic shell models in a multibody framework. We focus our attention to Kirchhoff-Love shells and explore the benefits of an isogeometric approach, the latest development in finite element methods, within a multibody system. Isogeometric analysis extends isoparametric finite elements to more general functions such as B-Splines and Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) and works on exact geometry representations even at the coarsest level of discretizations. Using NURBS as basis functions, high regularity requirements of the shell model, which are difficult to achieve with standard finite elements, are easily fulfilled. A particular advantage is the promise of simplifying the mesh generation step, and mesh refinement is easily performed by eliminating the need for communication with the geometry representation in a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tool. Quite often the domain consists of several patches where each patch is parametrized by means of NURBS, and these patches are then glued together by means of continuity conditions. Although the techniques known from domain decomposition can be carried over to this situation, the analysis of shell structures is substantially more involved as additional angle preservation constraints between the patches might arise. In this work, we address this issue in the stationary and transient case and make use of the analogy to constrained mechanical systems with joints and springs as interconnection elements. Starting point of our work is the bending strip method which is a penalty approach that adds extra stiffness to the interface between adjacent patches and which is found to lead to a so-called stiff mechanical system that might suffer from ill-conditioning and severe stepsize restrictions during time integration. As a remedy, an alternative formulation is developed that improves the condition number of the system and removes the penalty parameter dependence. Moreover, we study another alternative formulation with continuity constraints applied to triples of control points at the interface. The approach presented here to tackle stiff systems is quite general and can be applied to all penalty problems fulfilling some regularity requirements. The numerical examples demonstrate an impressive convergence behavior of the isogeometric approach even for a coarse mesh, while offering substantial savings with respect to the number of degrees of freedom. We show a comparison between the different multipatch approaches and observe that the alternative formulations are well conditioned, independent of any penalty parameter and give the correct results. We also present a technique to couple the isogeometric shells with multibody systems using a pointwise interaction.