## Fachbereich Mathematik

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- vertikale Geschwindigkeiten (1)
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In this paper we consider the location of stops along the edges of an already existing public transportation network, as introduced in [SHLW02]. This can be the introduction of bus stops along some given bus routes, or of railway stations along the tracks in a railway network. The goal is to achieve a maximal covering of given demand points with a minimal number of stops. This bicriterial problem is in general NP-hard. We present a nite dominating set yielding an IP-formulation as a bicriterial set covering problem. We use this formulation to observe that along one single straight line the bicriterial stop location problem can be solved in polynomial time and present an e cient solution approach for this case. It can be used as the basis of an algorithm tackling real-world instances.

The question of how to model dependence structures between financial assets was revolutionized since the last decade when the copula concept was introduced in financial research. Even though the concept of splitting marginal behavior and dependence structure (described by a copula) of multidimensional distributions already goes back to Sklar (1955) and Hoeffding (1940), there were very little empirical efforts done to check out the potentials of this approach. The aim of this thesis is to figure out the possibilities of copulas for modelling, estimating and validating purposes. Therefore we extend the class of Archimedean Copulas via a transformation rule to new classes and come up with an explicit suggestion covering the Frank and Gumbel family. We introduce a copula based mapping rule leading to joint independence and as results of this mapping we present an easy method of multidimensional chi²-testing and a new estimate for high dimensional parametric distributions functions. Different ways of estimating the tail dependence coefficient, describing the asymptotic probability of joint extremes, are compared and improved. The limitations of elliptical distributions are carried out and a generalized form of them, preserving their applicability, is developed. We state a method to split a (generalized) elliptical distribution into its radial and angular part. This leads to a positive definite robust estimate of the dispersion matrix (here only given as a theoretical outlook). The impact of our findings is stated by modelling and testing the return distributions of stock- and currency portfolios furthermore of oil related commodities- and LME metal baskets. In addition we show the crash stability of real estate based firms and the existence of nonlinear dependence in between the yield curve.

The following three papers present recent developments in multiscale gravitational field modeling by the use of CHAMP or CHAMP-related data. Part A - The Model SWITCH-03: Observed orbit perturbations of the near-Earth orbiting satellite CHAMP are analyzed to recover the long-wavelength features of the Earth's gravitational potential. More precisely, by tracking the low-flying satellite CHAMP by the high-flying satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS) a kinematic orbit of CHAMP is obtainable from GPS tracking observations, i.e. the ephemeris in cartesian coordinates in an Earth-fixed coordinate frame (WGS84) becomes available. In this study we are concerned with two tasks: First we present new methods for preprocessing, modelling and analyzing the emerging tracking data. Then, in a first step we demonstrate the strength of our approach by applying it to simulated CHAMP orbit data. In a second step we present results obtained by operating on a data set derived from real CHAMP data. The modelling is mainly based on a connection between non-bandlimited spherical splines and least square adjustment techniques to take into account the non-sphericity of the trajectory. Furthermore, harmonic regularization wavelets for solving the underlying Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) problem are used within the framework of multiscale recovery of the Earth's gravitational potential leading to SWITCH-03 (Spline and Wavelet Inverse Tikhonov regularized CHamp data). Further it is shown how regularization parameters can be adapted adequately to a specific region improving a globally resolved model. Finally we give a comparison of the developed model to the EGM96 model, the model UCPH2002_02_0.5 from the University of Copenhagen and the GFZ models EIGEN-1s and EIGEN-2. Part B - Multiscale Solutions from CHAMP: CHAMP orbits and accelerometer data are used to recover the long- to medium- wavelength features of the Earth's gravitational potential. In this study we are concerned with analyzing preprocessed data in a framework of multiscale recovery of the Earth's gravitational potential, allowing both global and regional solutions. The energy conservation approach has been used to convert orbits and accelerometer data into in-situ potential. Our modelling is spacewise, based on (1) non-bandlimited least square adjustment splines to take into account the true (non-spherical) shape of the trajectory (2) harmonic regularization wavelets for solving the underlying inverse problem of downward continuation. Furthermore we can show that by adapting regularization parameters to specific regions local solutions can improve considerably on global ones. We apply this concept to kinematic CHAMP orbits, and, for test purposes, to dynamic orbits. Finally we compare our recovered model to the EGM96 model, and the GFZ models EIGEN-2 and EIGEN-GRACE01s. Part C - Multiscale Modeling from EIGEN-1S, EIGEN-2, EIGEN-GRACE01S, UCPH2002_0.5, EGM96: Spherical wavelets have been developed by the Geomathematics Group Kaiserslautern for several years and have been successfully applied to georelevant problems. Wavelets can be considered as consecutive band-pass filters and allow local approximations. The wavelet transform can also be applied to spherical harmonic models of the Earth's gravitational field like the most up-to-date EIGEN-1S, EIGEN-2, EIGEN-GRACE01S, UCPH2002_0.5, and the well-known EGM96. Thereby, wavelet coefficients arise and these shall be made available to other interested groups. These wavelet coefficients allow the reconstruction of the wavelet approximations. Different types of wavelets are considered: bandlimited wavelets (here: Shannon and Cubic Polynomial (CP)) as well as non-bandlimited ones (in our case: Abel-Poisson). For these types wavelet coefficients are computed and wavelet variances are given. The data format of the wavelet coefficients is also included.

We define a class of topological spaces (LCNT-spaces) which come together with a nuclear Frechet algebra. Like the algebra of smooth functions on a manifold, this algebra carries the differential structure of the object. We compute the Hochschild homology of this object and show that it is isomorphic to the space of differential forms. This is a generalization of a result obtained by Alain Connes in the framework of smooth manifolds.

Hyperquasivarieties
(2003)

The thesis deals with the subgradient optimization methods which are serving to solve nonsmooth optimization problems. We are particularly concerned with solving large-scale integer programming problems using the methodology of Lagrangian relaxation and dualization. The goal is to employ the subgradient optimization techniques to solve large-scale optimization problems that originated from radiation therapy planning problem. In the thesis, different kinds of zigzagging phenomena which hamper the speed of the subgradient procedures have been investigated and identified. Moreover, we have established a new procedure which can completely eliminate the zigzagging phenomena of subgradient methods. Procedures used to construct both primal and dual solutions within the subgradient schemes have been also described. We applied the subgradient optimization methods to solve the problem of minimizing total treatment time of radiation therapy. The problem is NP-hard and thus far there exists no method for solving the problem to optimality. We present a new, efficient, and fast algorithm which combines exact and heuristic procedures to solve the problem.

The thesis is concerned with the modelling of ionospheric current systems and induced magnetic fields in a multiscale framework. Scaling functions and wavelets are used to realize a multiscale analysis of the function spaces under consideration and to establish a multiscale regularization procedure for the inversion of the considered operator equation. First of all a general multiscale concept for vectorial operator equations between two separable Hilbert spaces is developed in terms of vector kernel functions. The equivalence to the canonical tensorial ansatz is proven and the theory is transferred to the case of multiscale regularization of vectorial inverse problems. As a first application, a special multiresolution analysis of the space of square-integrable vector fields on the sphere, e.g. the Earth’s magnetic field measured on a spherical satellite’s orbit, is presented. By this, a multiscale separation of spherical vector-valued functions with respect to their sources can be established. The vector field is split up into a part induced by sources inside the sphere, a part which is due to sources outside the sphere and a part which is generated by sources on the sphere, i.e. currents crossing the sphere. The multiscale technqiue is tested on a magnetic field data set of the satellite CHAMP and it is shown that crustal field determination can be improved by previously applying our method. In order to reconstruct ionspheric current systems from magnetic field data, an inversion of the Biot-Savart’s law in terms of multiscale regularization is defined. The corresponding operator is formulated and the singular values are calculated. Based on the konwledge of the singular system a regularzation technique in terms of certain product kernels and correponding convolutions can be formed. The method is tested on different simulations and on real magnetic field data of the satellite CHAMP and the proposed satellite mission SWARM.

We construct and study two surface measures on the space C([0,1],M) of paths in a compact Riemannian manifold M embedded into the Euclidean space R^n. The first one is induced by conditioning the usual Wiener measure on C([0,T],R^n) to the event that the Brownian particle does not leave the tubular epsilon-neighborhood of M up to time T, and passing to the limit. The second one is defined as the limit of the laws of reflected Brownian motions with reflection on the boundaries of the tubular epsilon-neighborhoods of M. We prove that the both surface measures exist and compare them with the Wiener measure W_M on C([0,T],M). We show that the first one is equivalent to W_M and compute the corresponding density explicitly in terms of the scalar curvature and the mean curvature vector of M. Further, we show that the second surface measure coincides with W_M. Finally, we study the limit behavior of the both surface measures as T tends to infinity.

In this thesis the combinatorial framework of toric geometry is extended to equivariant sheaves over toric varieties. The central questions are how to extract combinatorial information from the so developed description and whether equivariant sheaves can, like toric varieties, be considered as purely combinatorial objects. The thesis consists of three main parts. In the first part, by systematically extending the framework of toric geometry, a formalism is developed for describing equivariant sheaves by certain configurations of vector spaces. In the second part, homological properties of a certain class of equivariant sheaves are investigated, namely that of reflexive equivariant sheaves. Several kinds of resolutions for these sheaves are constructed which depend only on the configuration of their associated vector spaces. Thus a partially positive answer to the question of combinatorial representability is given. As a particular result, a new way for computing minimal resolutions for Z^n - graded modules over polynomial rings is obtained. In the third part a complete classification of the simplest nontrivial sheaves, equivariant vector bundles of rank two over smooth toric surfaces, is given. A combinatorial characterization is given and parameter spaces (moduli spaces) are constructed which depend only on this characterization. In appendices a outlook on equivariant sheaves and the relation of Chern classes to their combinatorial classification is given, particularly focussing on the case of the projective plane. A classification of equivariant vector bundles of rank three over the projective plane is given.

We study a possiblity to use the structure of the regularization error for a posteriori choice of the regularization parameter. As a result, a rather general form of a selection criterion is proposed, and its relation to the heuristical quasi-optimality principle of Tikhonov and Glasko (1964), and to an adaptation scheme proposed in a statistical context by Lepskii (1990), is discussed. The advantages of the proposed criterion are illustrated by using such examples as self-regularization of the trapezoidal rule for noisy Abel-type integral equations, Lavrentiev regularization for non-linear ill-posed problems and an inverse problem of the two-dimensional profile reconstruction.

A new class of locally supported radial basis functions on the (unit) sphere is introduced by forming an infinite number of convolutions of ''isotropic finite elements''. The resulting up functions show useful properties: They are locally supported and are infinitely often differentiable. The main properties of these kernels are studied in detail. In particular, the development of a multiresolution analysis within the reference space of square--integrable functions over the sphere is given. Altogether, the paper presents a mathematically significant and numerically efficient introduction to multiscale approximation by locally supported radial basis functions on the sphere.

The Earth's surface is an almost perfect sphere. Deviations from its spherical shape are less than 0,4% of its radius and essentially arise from its rotation. All equipotential surfaces are nearly spherical, too. In consequence, multiscale modelling of geoscientifically relevant data on the sphere involving rotational symmetry of the trial functions used for the approximation plays an important role. In this paper we deal with isotropic kernel functions showing local support and (one-dimensional) polynomial structure (briefly called isotropic finite elements) for reconstructing square--integrable functions on the sphere. Essential tool is the concept of multiresolution analysis by virtue of the spherical up function. The main result is a tree algorithm in terms of (low--order) isotropic finite elements.

In this paper we consider set covering problems with a coefficient matrix almost having the consecutive ones property, i.e., in many rows of the coefficient matrix, the ones appear consecutively. If this property holds for all rows it is well known that the set covering problem can be solved efficiently. For our case of almost consecutive ones we present a reformulation exploiting the consecutive ones structure to develop bounds and a branching scheme. Our approach has been tested on real-world data as well as on theoretical problem instances.

In this paper we discuss an earliest arrival flow problem of a network having arc travel times and capacities that vary with time over a finite time horizon T. We also consider the possibility to wait (or park) at a node before departingon outgoing arc. This waiting is bounded by the value of maximum waiting time and the node capacity which also vary with time.

We generalize the classical shortest path problem in two ways. We consider two - in general contradicting - objective functions and introduce a time dependency of the cost which is caused by a traversal time on each arc. The resulting problem, called time-dependent bicriteria shortest path problem (TdBiSP) has several interesting practical applications, but has not attained much attention in the literature.

We consider the problem of estimating the conditional quantile of a time series at time t given observations of the same and perhaps other time series available at time t-1. We discuss an estimate which we get by inverting a kernel estimate of the conditional distribution function, and prove its asymptotic normality and uniform strong consistency. We illustrate the good performance of the estimate for light and heavy-tailed distributions of the innovations with a small simulation study.

A hub location problem consists of locating p hubs in a network in order to collect and consolidate flow between node pairs. This thesis deals with the uncapacitated single allocation p-hub center problem (USApHCP) as a special type of hub location problem with min max objective function. Using the so-called radius formulation of the problem, the dimension of the polyhedron of USApHCP is derived. The formulation constraints are investigated to find out which of these define facets. Then, three new classes of facet-defining inequalities are derived. Finally, efficient procedures to separate facets in a branch-and-cut algorithm are proposed. The polyhedral analysis of USApHCP is based on a tight relation to the uncapacitated facility location problem (UFL). Hence, many results stated in this thesis also hold for UFL.

This publication tries to develop mathematical subjects for school from realistic problems. The center of this report are business planning and decision problems which occur in almost all companies. The main topics are: Calculation of raw material demand for given orders, consumption of existing stock and the lot sizing.

A mediados del año 1997 la publicación de los denominados TIMMS-Estudios (Third International Mathematics and Science Study) causó un importante impacto en el público alemán. El motivo de esto fue el rendimiento escolar conseguido en la rama de matemáticas y ciencias naturales del octavo curso, el cual estaba situado en un campo internacional, donde particularmente en el ámbito matemático el conjunto de los estados del norte-, oeste-, y del este de Europa que forman parte del TIMSS - sin mencionar a la mayoría de los paises asiáticos - habían conseguido claramente mejores rendimiento. En definitiva mostraban un peor rendimiento los escolares alemanes con respecto a los paises vecinos y con los ....

Linear Optimization is an important area from applied mathematics. A lot of practical problems can be modelled and solved with this technique. This publication shall help to introduce this topic to pupils. The process of modelling, the reduction of problems to their significant attributes shall be described. The linear programms will be solved by using the simplex method. Many examples illustrate the topic.

Las matemáticas son atribuidas en general a algo no claro y sólo para matemáticos. La imagen de las matemáticas para los escolares, es la de una ciencia, la cual se sirve sólo de si misma. Es importante hacer frente al prejuicio de que las matemáticas distan lejos de toda utilidad práctica. La matemática es una ciencia al servicio de todas las dem´as ciencias, de cuya ayuda se necesita en casi todos los campos de la vida. La matemática de la escuela debería despertar en cualquier ámbito de la vida de los escolares el interés sobre ...

The focus of this work has been to develop two families of wavelet solvers for the inner displacement boundary-value problem of elastostatics. Our methods are particularly suitable for the deformation analysis corresponding to geoscientifically relevant (regular) boundaries like sphere, ellipsoid or the actual Earth's surface. The first method, a spatial approach to wavelets on a regular (boundary) surface, is established for the classical (inner) displacement problem. Starting from the limit and jump relations of elastostatics we formulate scaling functions and wavelets within the framework of the Cauchy-Navier equation. Based on numerical integration rules a tree algorithm is constructed for fast wavelet computation. This method can be viewed as a first attempt to "short-wavelength modelling", i.e. high resolution of the fine structure of displacement fields. The second technique aims at a suitable wavelet approximation associated to Green's integral representation for the displacement boundary-value problem of elastostatics. The starting points are tensor product kernels defined on Cauchy-Navier vector fields. We come to scaling functions and a spectral approach to wavelets for the boundary-value problems of elastostatics associated to spherical boundaries. Again a tree algorithm which uses a numerical integration rule on bandlimited functions is established to reduce the computational effort. For numerical realization for both methods, multiscale deformation analysis is investigated for the geoscientifically relevant case of a spherical boundary using test examples. Finally, the applicability of our wavelet concepts is shown by considering the deformation analysis of a particular region of the Earth, viz. Nevada, using surface displacements provided by satellite observations. This represents the first step towards practical applications.

Diese Arbeit gehört in die algebraische Geometrie und die Darstellungstheorie und stellt eine Beziehung zwischen beiden Gebieten dar. Man beschäftigt sich mit den abgeleiteten Kategorien auf flachen Entartungen projektiver Geraden und elliptischer Kurven. Als Mittel benutzt man die Technik der Matrixprobleme. Das Hauptergebnis dieser Dissertation ist der folgende Satz: SATZ. Sei X ein Zykel projektiver Geraden. Dann gibt es drei Typen unzerlegbarer Objekte in D^-(Coh_X): - Shifts von Wolkenkratzergarben in einem regulären Punkt; - Bänder B(w,m,lambda), - Saiten S(w). Ganz analog beweist man die Zahmheit der abgeleiteten Kategorien vieler assoziativer Algebren.

The central theme in this thesis concerns the development of enhanced methods and algorithms for appraising market and credit risks and their application within the context of standard and more advanced market models. Generally, methods and algorithms for analysing market risk of complex portfolios involve detailed knowledge of option sensitivities, the so-called "Greeks". Based on an analysis of symmetries in financial market models, relations between option sensitivities are obtained, which can be used for the efficient valuation of the Greeks. Mainly, the relations are derived within the Black Scholes model, however, some relations are also valid for more general models, for instance the Heston model. Portfolios are usually influenced by lots of underlyings, so it is necessary to characterise the dependencies of these basic instruments. It is usual to describe such dependencies by correlation matrices. However, estimations of correlation matrices in practice are disturbed by statistical noise and usually have the problem of rank deficiency due to missing data. A fast algorithm is presented which performs a generalized Cholesky decomposition of a perturbed correlation matrix. In contrast to the standard Cholesky algorithm, an advantage of the generalized method is that it works for semi-positive, rank deficient matrices as well. Moreover, it gives an approximative decomposition when the input matrix is indefinite. A comparison with known algorithms with similar features is performed and it turns out, that the new algorithm can be recommended in situations where computation time is the critical issue. The determination of a profit and loss distribution by Fourier inversion of its characteristic function is a powerful tool, but it can break down when the characteristic function is not integrable. In this thesis, methods for Fourier inversion of non-integrable characteristic functions are studied. In this respect, two theorems are obtained which are based on a suitable approximation of the unknown distribution with known density and characteristic function. Further it will be shown, that straightforward Fast Fourier inversion works, when the according density lives on a bounded interval. The above techniques are of crucial importance to determine the profit and loss distribution (P&L) of large portfolios efficiently. The so-called Delta Gamma normal approach has become industrial standard for the estimation of market risk. It is shown, that the performance of the Delta Gamma normal approach can be improved substantially by application of the developed methods. The same optimization procedure also applies to the Delta Gamma Student model. A standard tool for computing the P&L distribution of a loan portfolio is the CreditRisk+ model. Basically, the CreditRisk+ distribution is a discrete distribution which can be computed from its probability generating function. For this a numerically stable method is presented and as an alternative, a new algorithm based on Fourier inversion is proposed. Finally, an extension of the CreditRisk+ model to market risk is developed, which distribution can be obtained efficiently by the presented Fourier inversion methods as well.

In recent years a considerable attention was paid to an investigation of finite orders relative to different properties of their isotone functions [2,3]. Strict order relations are defined as strict asymmetric and transitive binary relations. Some algebraic properties of strict orders were already studied in [6]. For the class K of so-called 2-series strict orders we describe the partially ordered set EndK of endomorphism monoids, ordered by inclusion. It is obtained that EndK possesses a least element and in most cases defines a Boolean algebra. Moreover, every 2-series strict order is determined by its n-ary isotone functions for some natural number n.

The thesis discusses discrete-time dynamic flows over a finite time horizon T. These flows take time, called travel time, to pass an arc of the network. Travel times, as well as other network attributes, such as, costs, arc and node capacities, and supply at the source node, can be constant or time-dependent. Here we review results on discrete-time dynamic flow problems (DTDNFP) with constant attributes and develop new algorithms to solve several DTDNFPs with time-dependent attributes. Several dynamic network flow problems are discussed: maximum dynamic flow, earliest arrival flow, and quickest flow problems. We generalize the hybrid capacity scaling and shortest augmenting path algorithmic of the static network flow problem to consider the time dependency of the network attributes. The result is used to solve the maximum dynamic flow problem with time-dependent travel times and capacities. We also develop a new algorithm to solve earliest arrival flow problems with the same assumptions on the network attributes. The possibility to wait (or park) at a node before departing on outgoing arc is also taken into account. We prove that the complexity of new algorithm is reduced when infinite waiting is considered. We also report the computational analysis of this algorithm. The results are then used to solve quickest flow problems. Additionally, we discuss time-dependent bicriteria shortest path problems. Here we generalize the classical shortest path problems in two ways. We consider two - in general contradicting - objective functions and introduce a time dependency of the cost which is caused by a travel time on each arc. These problems have several interesting practical applications, but have not attained much attention in the literature. Here we develop two new algorithms in which one of them requires weaker assumptions as in previous research on the subject. Numerical tests show the superiority of the new algorithms. We then apply dynamic network flow models and their associated solution algorithms to determine lower bounds of the evacuation time, evacuation routes, and maximum capacities of inhabited areas with respect to safety requirements. As a macroscopic approach, our dynamic network flow models are mainly used to produce good lower bounds for the evacuation time and do not consider any individual behavior during the emergency situation. These bounds can be used to analyze existing buildings or help in the design phase of planning a building.

The main two problems of continuous-time financial mathematics are option pricing and portfolio optimization. In this thesis, various new aspects of these major topics of financial mathematics will be discussed. In all our considerations we will assume the standard diffusion type setting for securitiy prices which is today well-know under the term "Black-Scholes model". This setting and the basic results of option pricing and portfolio optimization are surveyed in the first chapter. The next three chapters deal with generalizations of the standard portfolio problem, also know as "Merton's problem". Here, we will always use the stochastic control approach as introduced in the seminal papers by Merton (1969, 1971, 1990). One such problem is the very realistic setting of an investor who is faced with fixed monetary streams. More precisely, in addition to maximizing the utility from final wealth via choosing an investment strategy, the investor also has to fulfill certain consumption needs. Also the opposite situation, an additional income stream can now be taken into account in our portfolio optimization problem. We consider various examples and solve them on one hand via classical stochastic control methods and on the other hand by our new separation theorem. This together with some numerical examples forms Chapter 2. Chapter 3 is mainly concerned with the portfolio problem if the investor has different lending and borrowing rates. We give explicit solutions (where possible) and numerical methods to calculate the optimal strategy in the cases of log utility and HARA utility for three different modelling approaches of the dependence of the borrowing rate on the fraction of wealth financed by a credit. The further generalization of the standard Merton problem in Chapter 4 consists in considering simultaneously the possibilities for continuous and discrete consumption. In our general approach there is a possibility for assigning the different consumption times different weights which is a generalization of the usual way of making them comparable via discounting. Chapter 5 deals with the special case of pricing basket options. Here, the main problem is not path-dependence but the multi-dimensionality which makes it impossible to give usuefull analytical representations of the option price. We review the literature and compare six different numerical methods in a systematic way. Thereby we also look at the influence of various parameters such as strike, correlation, forwards or volatilities on the erformance of the different numerical methods. The problem of pricing Asian options on average spot with average strike is the topic of Chapter 6. We here apply the bivariate normal distribution to obtain an approximate option price. This method proves to be very reliable and e±cient for the valuation of different variants of Asian options on average spot with average strike.

The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com. This original publication also contains further results. We study a spherical wave propagating in radius- and latitude-direction and oscillating in latitude-direction in case of fibre-reinforced linearly elastic material. A function system solving Euler's equation of motion in this case and depending on certain Bessel and associated Legendre functions is derived.

The inverse problem of recovering the Earth's density distribution from satellite data of the first or second derivative of the gravitational potential at orbit height is discussed. This problem is exponentially ill-posed. In this paper a multiscale regularization technique using scaling functions and wavelets constructed for the corresponding integro-differential equations is introduced and its numerical applications are discussed. In the numerical part the second radial derivative of the gravitational potential at 200 km orbit height is calculated on a point grid out of the NASA/GSFC/NIMA Earth Geopotential Model (EGM96). Those simulated derived data out of SGG satellite measurements are taken for convolutions with the introduced scaling functions yielding a multiresolution analysis of harmonic density variations in the Earth's crust.

In this paper, the reflection and refraction of a plane wave at an interface between .two half-spaces composed of triclinic crystalline material is considered. It is shown that due to incidence of a plane wave three types of waves namely quasi-P (qP), quasi-SV (qSV) and quasi-SH (qSH) will be generated governed by the propagation condition involving the acoustic tensor. A simple procedure has been presented for the calculation of all the three phase velocities of the quasi waves. It has been considered that the direction of particle motion is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Relations are established between directions of motion and propagation, respectively. The expressions for reflection and refraction coefficients of qP, qSV and qSH waves are obtained. Numerical results of reflection and refraction coefficients are presented for different types of anisotropic media and for different types of incident waves. Graphical representation have been made for incident qP waves and for incident qSV and qSH waves numerical data are presented in two tables.

SST (satellite-to-satellite tracking) and SGG (satellite gravity gradiometry) provide data that allows the determination of the first and second order radial derivative of the earth's gravitational potential on the satellite orbit, respectively. The modeling of the gravitational potential from such data is an exponentially ill-posed problem that demands regularization. In this paper, we present the numerical studies of an approach, investigated in [24] and [25], that reconstructs the potential with spline smoothing. In this case, spline smoothing is not just an approximation procedure but it solves the underlying compact operator equation of the SST-problem and the SGG-problem. The numerical studies in this paper are performed for a simplified geometrical scenario with simulated data, but the approach is designed to handle first or second order radial derivative data on a real satellite orbit.

Semiparametric estimation of conditional quantiles for time series, with applications in finance
(2003)

The estimation of conditional quantiles has become an increasingly important issue in insurance and financial risk management. The stylized facts of financial time series data has rendered direct applications of extreme value theory methodologies, in the estimation of extreme conditional quantiles, inappropriate. On the other hand, quantile regression based procedures work well in nonextreme parts of a given data but breaks down in extreme probability levels. In order to solve this problem, we combine nonparametric regressions for time series and extreme value theory approaches in the estimation of extreme conditional quantiles for financial time series. To do so, a class of time series models that is similar to nonparametric AR-(G)ARCH models but which does not depend on distributional and moments assumptions, is introduced. We discuss estimation procedures for the nonextreme levels using the models and consider the estimates obtained by inverting conditional distribution estimators and by direct estimation using Koenker-Basset (1978) version for kernels. Under some regularity conditions, the asymptotic normality and uniform convergence, with rates, of the conditional quantile estimator for strong mixing time series, are established. We study the estimation of scale function in the introduced models using similar procedures and show that under some regularity conditions, the scale estimate is weakly consistent and asymptotically normal. The application of introduced models in the estimation of extreme conditional quantiles is achieved by augmenting them with methods in extreme value theory. It is shown that the overal extreme conditional quantiles estimator is consistent. A Monte Carlo study is carried out to illustrate the good performance of the estimates and real data are used to demonstrate the estimation of Value-at-Risk and conditional expected shortfall in financial risk management and their multiperiod predictions discussed.

Zuerst einmal werden die Grundlagen der nichtparametrischen Regression sowie die der Kleinste-Quadrate-Schätzer behandelt und unser verwendetes Modell hergeleitet. Kapitel 3 führt dann in die Theorie der gewichteten Kernschätzer ein, wobei auch das asymptotische Verhalten genauer untersucht wird. Des Weiteren wird ein numerischer Algorithmus zur Berechnung der Kernschätzer angegeben. Die Simulationsstudie der gewichteten Kernschätzer anhand von Regressionsdaten und Zeitreihendaten sowie die praktische Beurteilung erfolgen in Kapitel 4 und 5. Reale Zeitreihendaten bilden danach im sechsten Kapitel die Grundlage für die praktische Betrachtung der neuen Schätzer. Im letzten Kapitel folgt dann ein Resümee und ein kleiner Ausblick auf die gewichteten Kernschätzer für allgemeinere Modelle.

Extensions of Shallow Water Equations The subject of the thesis of Michael Hilden is the simulation of floods in urban areas. In case of strong rain events, water can flow out of the overloaded sewer system onto the street and damage the connected houses. The dependable simulation of water flow out of a manhole ("manhole") and over a curb ("curb") is crucial for the assessment of the flood risks. The incompressible 3D-Navier-Stokes Equations (3D-NSE) describe the free surface flow of water accurately, but require expensive computations. Therefore, the less CPU-intensive (factor ca.1/100) Shallow Water Equations (SWE) are usually applied in hydrology. They can be derived from 3D-NSE under the assumption of a hydrostatic pressure distribution via depth-integration and are applied successfully in particular to simulations of river flow processes. The SWE-computations of the flow problems "manhole" and "curb" differ to the 3D-NSE results. Thus, SWE need to be extended appropriately to give reliable forecasts for flood risks in urban areas within reduced computational efforts. These extensions are developed based on physical considerations not considered in the classical SWE. In one extension, a vortex layer on the ground is separated from the main flow representing its new bottom. In a further extension, the hydrostatic pressure distribution is corrected by additional terms due to approximations of vertical velocities and their interaction with the flow. These extensions increase the quality of the SWE results for these flow problems up to the quality level of the NSE results within a moderate increase of the CPU efforts.

The present thesis deals with coupled steady state laminar flows of isothermal incompressible viscous Newtonian fluids in plain and in porous media. The flow in the pure fluid region is usually described by the (Navier-)Stokes system of equations. The most popular models for the flow in the porous media are those suggested by Darcy and by Brinkman. Interface conditions, proposed in the mathematical literature for coupling Darcy and Navier-Stokes equations, are shortly reviewed in the thesis. The coupling of Navier-Stokes and Brinkman equations in the literature is based on the so called continuous stress tensor interface conditions. One of the main tasks of this thesis is to investigate another type of interface conditions, namely, the recently suggested stress tensor jump interface conditions. The mathematical models based on these interface conditions were not carefully investigated from the mathematical point of view, and also their validity was a subject of discussions. The considerations within this thesis are a step toward better understanding of these interface conditions. Several aspects of the numerical simulations of such coupled flows are considered: -the choice of proper interface conditions between the plain and porous media -analysis of the well-posedness of the arising systems of partial differential equations; -developing numerical algorithm for the stress tensor jump interface conditions, coupling Navier-Stokes equations in the pure liquid media with the Navier-Stokes-Brinkman equations in the porous media; -validation of the macroscale mathematical models on the base of a comparison with the results from a direct numerical simulation of model representative problems, allowing for grid resolution of the pore level geometry; -developing software and performing numerical simulation of 3-D industrial flows, namely of oil flows through car filters.