## Fachbereich Mathematik

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- Edwards Model (1)
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Factorization of multivariate polynomials is a cornerstone of many applications in computer algebra. To compute it, one uses an algorithm by Zassenhaus who used it in 1969 to factorize univariate polynomials over \(\mathbb{Z}\). Later Musser generalized it to the multivariate case. Subsequently, the algorithm was refined and improved.
In this work every step of the algorithm is described as well as the problems that arise in these steps.
In doing so, we restrict to the coefficient domains \(\mathbb{F}_{q}\), \(\mathbb{Z}\), and \(\mathbb{Q}(\alpha)\) while focussing on a fast implementation. The author has implemented almost all algorithms mentioned in this work in the C++ library factory which is part of the computer algebra system Singular.
Besides, a new bound on the coefficients of a factor of a multivariate polynomial over \(\mathbb{Q}(\alpha)\) is proven which does not require \(\alpha\) to be an algebraic integer. This bound is used to compute Hensel lifting and recombination of factors in a modular fashion. Furthermore, several sub-steps are improved.
Finally, an overview on the capability of the implementation is given which includes benchmark examples as well as random generated input which is supposed to give an impression of the average performance.

The application behind the subject of this thesis are multiscale simulations on highly heterogeneous particle-reinforced composites with large jumps in their material coefficients. Such simulations are used, e.g., for the prediction of elastic properties. As the underlying microstructures have very complex geometries, a discretization by means of finite elements typically involves very fine resolved meshes. The latter results in discretized linear systems of more than \(10^8\) unknowns which need to be solved efficiently. However, the variation of the material coefficients even on very small scales reveals the failure of most available methods when solving the arising linear systems. While for scalar elliptic problems of multiscale character, robust domain decomposition methods are developed, their extension and application to 3D elasticity problems needs to be further established.
The focus of the thesis lies in the development and analysis of robust overlapping domain decomposition methods for multiscale problems in linear elasticity. The method combines corrections on local subdomains with a global correction on a coarser grid. As the robustness of the overall method is mainly determined by how well small scale features of the solution can be captured on the coarser grid levels, robust multiscale coarsening strategies need to be developed which properly transfer information between fine and coarse grids.
We carry out a detailed and novel analysis of two-level overlapping domain decomposition methods for the elasticity problems. The study also provides a concept for the construction of multiscale coarsening strategies to robustly solve the discretized linear systems, i.e. with iteration numbers independent of variations in the Young's modulus and the Poisson ratio of the underlying composite. The theory also captures anisotropic elasticity problems and allows applications to multi-phase elastic materials with non-isotropic constituents in two and three spatial dimensions.
Moreover, we develop and construct new multiscale coarsening strategies and show why they should be preferred over standard ones on several model problems. In a parallel implementation (MPI) of the developed methods, we present applications to real composites and robustly solve discretized systems of more than \(200\) million unknowns.

This thesis deals with generalized inverses, multivariate polynomial interpolation and approximation of scattered data. Moreover, it covers the lifting scheme, which basically links the aforementioned topics. For instance, determining filters for the lifting scheme is connected to multivariate polynomial interpolation. More precisely, sets of interpolation sites are required that can be interpolated by a unique polynomial of a certain degree. In this thesis a new class of such sets is introduced and elements from this class are used to construct new and computationally more efficient filters for the lifting scheme.
Furthermore, a method to approximate multidimensional scattered data is introduced which is based on the lifting scheme. A major task in this method is to solve an ordinary linear least squares problem which possesses a special structure. Exploiting this structure yields better approximations and therefore this particular least squares problem is analyzed in detail. This leads to a characterization of special generalized inverses with partially prescribed image spaces.

Many real life problems have multiple spatial scales. In addition to the multiscale nature one has to take uncertainty into account. In this work we consider multiscale problems with stochastic coefficients.
We combine multiscale methods, e.g., mixed multiscale finite elements or homogenization, which are used for deterministic problems with stochastic methods, such as multi-level Monte Carlo or polynomial chaos methods.
The work is divided into three parts.
In the first two parts we study homogenization with different stochastic methods. Therefore we consider elliptic stationary diffusion equations with stochastic coefficients.
The last part is devoted to the study of mixed multiscale finite elements in combination with multi-level Monte Carlo methods. In the third part we consider multi-phase flow and transport equations.

This thesis is separated into three main parts: Development of Gaussian and White Noise Analysis, Hamiltonian Path Integrals as White Noise Distributions, Numerical methods for polymers driven by fractional Brownian motion.
Throughout this thesis the Donsker's delta function plays a key role. We investigate this generalized function also in Chapter 2. Moreover we show by giving a counterexample, that the general definition for complex kernels is not true.
In Chapter 3 we take a closer look to generalized Gauss kernels and generalize these concepts to the case of vector-valued White Noise. These results are the basis for Hamiltonian path integrals of quadratic type. The core result of this chapter gives conditions under which pointwise products of generalized Gauss kernels and certain Hida distributions have a mathematical rigorous meaning as distributions in the Hida space.
In Chapter 4 we discuss operators which are related to applications for Feynman Integrals as differential operators, scaling, translation and projection. We show the relation of these operators to differential operators, which leads to the well-known notion of so called convolution operators. We generalize the central homomorphy theorem to regular generalized functions.
We generalize the concept of complex scaling to scaling with bounded operators and discuss the relation to generalized Radon-Nikodym derivatives. With the help of this we consider products of generalized functions in chapter 5. We show that the projection operator from the Wick formula for products with Donsker's deltais not closable on the square-integrable functions..
In Chapter 5 we discuss products of generalized functions. Moreover the Wick formula is revisited. We investigate under which conditions and on which spaces the Wick formula can be generalized to. At the end of the chapter we consider the products of Donsker's delta function with a generalized function with help of a measure transformation. Here also problems as measurability are concerned.
In Chapter 6 we characterize Hamiltonian path integrands for the free particle, the harmonic oscillator and the charged particle in a constant magnetic field as Hida distributions. This is done in terms of the T-transform and with the help of the results from chapter 3. For the free particle and the harmonic oscillator we also investigate the momentum space propagators. At the same time, the $T$-transform of the constructed Feynman integrands provides us with their generating functional. In Chapter 7, we can show that the generalized expectation (generating functional at zero) gives the Greens function to the corresponding Schrödinger equation.
Moreover, with help of the generating functional we can show that the canonical commutation relations for the free particle and the harmonic oscillator in phase space are fulfilled. This confirms on a mathematical rigorous level the heuristics developed by Feynman and Hibbs.
In Chapter 8 we give an outlook, how the scaling approach which is successfully applied in the Feynman integral setting can be transferred to the phase space setting. We give a mathematical rigorous meaning to an analogue construction to the scaled Feynman-Kac kernel. It is open if the expression solves the Schrödinger equation. At least for quadratic potentials we can get the right physics.
In the last chapter, we focus on the numerical analysis of polymer chains driven by fractional Brownian motion. Instead of complicated lattice algorithms, our discretization is based on the correlation matrix. Using fBm one can achieve a long-range dependence of the interaction of the monomers inside a polymer chain. Here a Metropolis algorithm is used to create the paths of a polymer driven by fBm taking the excluded volume effect in account.

This thesis is concerned with tropical moduli spaces, which are an important tool in tropical enumerative geometry. The main result is a construction of tropical moduli spaces of rational tropical covers of smooth tropical curves and of tropical lines in smooth tropical surfaces. The construction of a moduli space of tropical curves in a smooth tropical variety is reduced to the case of smooth fans. Furthermore, we point out relations to intersection theory on suitable moduli spaces on algebraic curves.

Efficient time integration and nonlinear model reduction for incompressible hyperelastic materials
(2013)

This thesis deals with the time integration and nonlinear model reduction of nearly incompressible materials that have been discretized in space by mixed finite elements. We analyze the structure of the equations of motion and show that a differential-algebraic system of index 1 with a singular perturbation term needs to be solved. In the limit case the index may jump to index 3 and thus renders the time integration into a difficult problem. For the time integration we apply Rosenbrock methods and study their convergence behavior for a test problem, which highlights the importance of the well-known Scholz conditions for this problem class. Numerical tests demonstrate that such linear-implicit methods are an attractive alternative to established time integration methods in structural dynamics. In the second part we combine the simulation of nonlinear materials with a model reduction step. We use the method of proper orthogonal decomposition and apply it to the discretized system of second order. For a nonlinear model reduction to be efficient we approximate the nonlinearity by following the lookup approach. In a practical example we show that large CPU time savings can achieved. This work is in order to prepare the ground for including such finite element structures as components in complex vehicle dynamics applications.

The main purpose of the study was to improve the physical properties of the modelling of compressed materials, especially fibrous materials. Fibrous materials are finding increasing application in the industries. And most of the materials are compressed for different applications. For such situation, we are interested in how the fibre arranged, e.g. with which distribution. For given materials it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional image via micro computed tomography. Since some physical parameters, e.g. the fibre lengths or the directions for points in the fibre, can be checked under some other methods from image, it is beneficial to improve the physical properties by changing the parameters in the image.
In this thesis, we present a new maximum-likelihood approach for the estimation of parameters of a parametric distribution on the unit sphere, which is various as some well known distributions, e.g. the von-Mises Fisher distribution or the Watson distribution, and for some models better fit. The consistency and asymptotic normality of the maximum-likelihood estimator are proven. As the second main part of this thesis, a general model of mixtures of these distributions on a hypersphere is discussed. We derive numerical approximations of the parameters in an Expectation Maximization setting. Furthermore we introduce a non-parametric estimation of the EM algorithm for the mixture model. Finally, we present some applications to the statistical analysis of fibre composites.

The use of trading stops is a common practice in financial markets for a variety of reasons: it provides a simple way to control losses on a given trade, while also ensuring that profit-taking is not deferred indefinitely; and it allows opportunities to consider reallocating resources to other investments. In this thesis, it is explained why the use of stops may be desirable in certain cases.
This is done by proposing a simple objective to be optimized. Some simple and commonly-used rules for the placing and use of stops are investigated; consisting of fixed or moving barriers, with fixed transaction costs. It is shown how to identify optimal levels at which to set stops, and the performances of different rules and strategies are compared. Thereby, uncertainty and altering of the drift parameter of the investment are incorporated.

In the last few years a lot of work has been done in the investigation of Brownian motion with point interaction(s) in one and higher dimensions. Roughly speaking a Brownian motion with point interaction is nothing else than a Brownian motion whose generator is disturbed by a measure supported in just one point.
The purpose of the present work is the introducing of curve interactions of the two dimensional Brownian motion for a closed curve \(\mathcal{C}\). We will understand a curve interaction as a self-adjoint extension of the restriction of the Laplacian to the set of infinitely often continuously differentiable functions with compact support in \(\mathbb{R}^{2}\) which are constantly 0 at the closed curve. We will give a full description of all these self-adjoint extensions.
In the second chapter we will prove a generalization of Tanaka's formula to \(\mathbb{R}^{2}\). We define \(g\) to be a so-called harmonic single layer with continuous layer function \(\eta\) in \(\mathbb{R}^{2}\). For such a function \(g\) we prove
\begin{align}
g\left(B_{t}\right)=g\left(B_{0}\right)+\int\limits_{0}^{t}{\nabla g\left(B_{s}\right)\mathrm{d}B_{s}}+\int\limits_{0}^{t}\eta\left(B_{s}\right)\mathrm{d}L\left(s,\mathcal{C}\right)
\end{align}
where \(B_{t}\) is just the usual Brownian motion in \(\mathbb{R}^{2}\) and \(L\left(t,\mathcal{C}\right)\) is the connected unique local time process of \(B_{t}\) on the closed curve \(\mathcal{C}\).
We will use the generalized Tanaka formula in the following chapter to construct classes of processes related to curve interactions. In a first step we get the generalization of point interactions in a second step we get processes which behaves like a Brownian motion in the complement of \(\mathcal{C}\) and has an additional movement along the curve in the time- scale of \(L\left(t,\mathcal{C}\right)\). Such processes do not exist in the one point case since there we cannot move when the Brownian motion is in the point.
By establishing an approximation of a curve interaction by operators of the form Laplacian \(+V_{n}\) with "nice" potentials \(V_{n}\) we are able to deduce the existence of superprocesses related to curve interactions.
The last step is to give an approximation of these superprocesses by a sytem of branching particles. This approximation gives a better understanding of the related mass creation.