Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) processes, like Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion (VARI), are gaining increasing interest for the cost-efficient production of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, e. g. Airbus A380 rear bulkhead. Meanwhile, purpose-built thermoset resin systems with adequately low processing viscosities are available. Although showing a better fatigue resistance composites from epoxy resins (EP) tend to be expensive while vinylester resin (VE) composites are more brittle and, hence, less fatigue resistant but attract due to their lower material costs. Following research on the toughness improvement of vinylester based resin systems, one subject of this thesis was the broad experimental characterization of the static and cyclic behavior of carbon fiber reinforced composites from resin systems which were toughened by either the generation of interpenetrating networks with aliphatic (Al-EP) and cyclo-aliphatic epoxy resins (Cal-EP) or by addition of a liquid, epoxy-terminated butadiene-nitrile rubber (ETBN). While quasi-static in-plane tension, compression and shear testing of [0°]8 and [±45°]3S laminates resulted in an unclear picture with regard to the mechanical performance of the investigated resin systems, R = -1 cyclic step loading provided a definite indication of the considerably higher cyclic fatigue strength of the modified carbon fiber reinforced vinylester-urethane (CF/VEUH:ETBN) composite which, consequently, was selected for detailed mechanical testing. To provide experimental input for subsequent fatigue life simulations applying the Critical Element Concept of Reifsnider et al.  the study included the determination of ultimate in-plane tension, compression and shear properties as well as the characterization of the cyclic fatigue behavior under constant amplitude loading. Different descriptions of S-N curves of the [0°]8-, [0°/90°]2S- and [+45°/0°/-45°/90°]S-laminates for R = +0.1, -1 and +10 were determined to derive constant fatigue life diagrams applying methods of Goodman or Harris et al. Furthermore the residual strength degradation model for the critical element (0° ply) and the residual stiffness degradation models for the sub-critical elements have been derived by experimental determination on [0°]8-, [0°/90°]2S- and [+45°/0°/-45°/90°]S-(CF/VEUH:ETBN)-laminates. Deficiencies in current fatigue life time prediction modeling for carbon fiber reinforced materials nowadays results in large factors of safety to be adopted. As a consequence composite structures are often overdesigned and expensive proto-type testing is required for life time prediction. Therefore, in this thesis standardized random-ordered miniTWIST (minimized transport wing standard) spectrum loading was used to understand improvements in fatigue life modeling so that fatigue life prediction results in a more efficient use of these materials. In particular the influence of constant amplitude cyclic fatigue modeling as well as constant fatigue life modeling itself on the results of the fatigue life analysis of random loading sequences have been investigated. Finally the bearing of residual strength or residual stiffness degradation modeling and the effect of filtering and counting methods on the fatigue life time prediction was determined in a sensitivity analysis. The fatigue life models were validated by experimental results using the random miniTWIST-loading on [0°]8-, [0°/90°]2S- and [+45°/0°/-45°/90°]S-(CF/VEUH:ETBN)-laminates.