In the present work the modelling and numerical treatment of discontinuities in thermo-mechanical solids is investigated and applied to diverse physical problems. From this topic a structure for this work results, which considers the formulation of thermo-mechanical processes in continua in the first part and which forms the mechanical and thermodynamical framework for the description of discontinuities and interfaces, that is performed in the second part. The representation of the modelling of solid materials bases on the detailed derivation of geometrically nonlinear kinematics, that yields different strain and stress measures for the material and spatial configuration. Accordingly, this results in different formulations of the mechanical and thermodynamical balance equations. On these foundations we firstly derive by means of the concepts of the plasticity theory an elasto-plastic prototype-model, that is extended subsequently. In the centre of interest is the formulation of damage models in consideration of rate-dependent material behaviour. In the next step follows the extension of the isothermal material models to thermo-mechanically coupled problems, whereby also the special case of adiabatic processes is discussed. Within the representation of the different constitutive laws, the importance is attached to their modular structure. Moreover, a detailed discussion of the isothermal and the thermo-mechanically coupled problem with respect to their numerical treatment is performed. For this purpose the weak forms with respect to the different configurations and the corresponding linearizations are derived and discretized. The derived material models are highlighted by numerical examples and also proved with respect to plausibility. In order to take discontinuities into account appropriate kinematics are introduced and the mechanical and thermodynamical balance equations have to be modified correspondingly. The numerical description is accomplished by so-called interface-elements, which are based on an adequate discretization. In this context two application fields are distinguished. On the one side the interface elements provide a tool for the description of postcritical processes in the framework of localization problems, which include material separation and therefore they are appropriate for the description of cutting processes. Here in turn one has to make the difference between the domain-dependent and the domain-independent formulation, which mainly differ in the definition of the interfacial strain measure. On the other side material properties are attached to the interfaces whereas the spatial extension is neglectable. A typical application of this type of discontinuities can be found in the scope of the modelling of composites, for instance. In both applications the corresponding thermo-mechanical formulations are derived. Finally, the different interface formulations are highlighted by some numerical examples and they are also proved with respect to plausibility.
Elastomeric and other rubber-like materials are often simultaneously exposed to short- and long-time loads within engineering applications. When aiming at establishing a general simulation tool for viscoelastic media over these different time scales, a suitable material model and its corresponding material parameters can only be determined if an appropriate number of experimental data is taken into account. In this work an algorithm for the identification of material parameters for large strain viscoelasticity is presented. Thereby, data of multiple experiments are considered. Based on this method the experimental loading intervals for long-time experiments can be shortened in time and the parameter identification procedure is now referred to experimental data of tests under short- and long-time loads without separating the parameters due to these different time scales. The employed viscoelastic material law is based on a nonlinear evolution law and valid far from thermodynamic equilibrium. The identification is carried out by minimizing a least squares functional comparing inhomogeneous displacement fields from experiments and FEM simulations at given (measured) force loads. Within this optimization procedure all material parameters are identified simultaneously by means of a gradient based method for which a semi-analytical sensitivity analysis is calculated. Representative numerical examples are referred to measured data for different polyurethanes. In order to show the general applicability of the identification method for multiple tests, in the last part of this work the parameter identification for small strain plasticity is presented. Thereby three similar test programs on three specimen of the aluminum alloy AlSi9Cu3 are analyzed, and the parameter sets for the respective individual identifications, and for the combination of all tests in one identification, is compared.
The main goal of this work is to examine various aspects of `inelastic continuum mechanics': first, fundamental aspects of a general finite deformation theory based on a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient with special emphasis on the incompatibility of the so-called intermediate configuration are discussed in detail. Moreover, various balance of linear momentum representations together with the corresponding volume forces are derived in a configurational mechanics context. Subsequent chapters are consequently based on these elaborations so that the applied multiplicative decomposition generally serves as a fundamental modelling concept in this work; after generalised strain measures are introduced, a kinematic hardening model coupled with anisotropic damage, a substructure evolution framework as well as two different growth and remodelling formulations for biological tissues are presented.
The main concern of this contribution is the computational modeling of biomechanically relevant phenomena. To minimize resource requirements, living biomaterials commonly adapt to changing demands. One way to do so is the optimization of mass. For the modeling of biomaterials with changing mass, we distinguish between two different approaches: the coupling of mass changes and deformations at the constitutive level and at the kinematic level. Mass change at the constitutive level is typically realized by weighting the free energy function with respect to the density field, as experimentally motivated by Carter and Hayes  and computationally realized by Harrigan and Hamilton . Such an ansatz enables the simulation of changes in density while the overall volume remains unaffected. In this contribution we call this effect remodeling. Although in principle applicable for small and large strains, this approach is typically adopted for hard tissues, e.g. bone, which usually undergo small strain deformations. Remodeling in anisotropic materials is realized by choosing an appropriate anisotropic free energy function. <br> Within the kinematic coupling, a changing mass is characterized through a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a growth part and an elastic part, as first introduced in the context of plasticity by Lee . In this formulation, which we will refer to as growth in the following, mass changes are attributed to changes in volume while the material density remains constant. This approach has classically been applied to model soft tissues undergoing large strains, e.g. the arterial wall. The first contribution including this ansatz is the work by Rodriguez, Hoger and McCulloch . To model anisotropic growth, an appropriate anisotropic growth deformation tensor has to be formulated. In this contribution we restrict ourselves to transversely isotropic growth, i.e., growth characterized by one preferred direction. On that account, we define a transversely isotropic growth deformation tensor determined by two variables, namely the stretch ratios parallel and perpendicular to the characteristic direction. <br> Another method of material optimization is the adaption of the inner structure f a material to its loading conditions. In anisotropic materials this can be realized by a suitable orientation of the material directions. For example, the trabeculae in the human femur head are oriented such that they can carry the daily loads with an optimum mass. Such a behavior can also be observed in soft tissues. For instance, the fibers of muscles and the collagen fibers in the arterial wall are oriented along the loading directions to carry a maximum of mechanical load. If the overall loading conditions change, for instance during a balloon angioplasty or a stent implantation, the material orientation readapts, which we call reorientation. The anisotropy type in biomaterials is often characterized by fiber reinforcement. A particular subclass of tissues, which includes muscles, tendons and ligaments, is featured by one family of fibers. More complex microstructures, such as arterial walls, show two fiber families, which do not necessarily have to be perpendicular. Within this contribution we confine ourselves to the first case, i.e., transversely isotropic materials indicated by one characteristic direction. The reorientation of the fiber direction in biomaterials is commonly smooth and continuous. For transverse isotropy it can be described by a rotation of the characteristic direction. Analogous to the theory of shells, we additionally exclude drilling rotations, see also Menzel . However, the driving force for these reorientation processes is still under discussion. Mathematical considerations promote strain driven reorientations. As discussed, for instance, in Vianello , the free energy reaches a critical state for coaxial stresses and strains. For transverse isotropy, it can be shown that this can be achieved if the characteristic direction is aligned with a principal strain direction. From a biological point of view, depending on the kind of material (i.e. bone, muscle tissue, cartilage tissue, etc.), both strains and stresses can be suggested as stimuli for reorientation. Thus, whithin this contribution both approaches are investigated. <br> In contrast to previous works, in which remodeling, growth and reorientation are discussed separately, the present work provides a framework comprising all of the three mentioned effects at once. This admits a direct comparison how and on which level the individual phenomenon is introduced into the material model, and which influence it has on the material behavior. For a uniform description of the phenomenological quantities an internal variable approach is chosen. Moreover, we particularly focus on the algorithmic implementation of the three effects, each on its own, into a finite element framework. The nonlinear equations on the local and the global level are solved by means of the Newton-Raphson scheme. Accordingly, the local update of the internal variables and the global update of the deformation field are consistently linearized yielding the corresponding tangent moduli. For an efficient implementation into a finite element code, unitized update algorithms are given. The fundamental characteristics of the effects are illustrated by means of some representative numerical simulations. Due to the unified framework, combinations of the individual effects are straightforward.
Thermoelasticity represents the fusion of the fields of heat conduction and elasticity in solids and is usually characterized by a twofold coupling. Thermally induced stresses can be determined as well as temperature changes caused by deformations. Studying the mutual influence is subject of thermoelasticity. Usually, heat conduction in solids is based on Fourier’s law which describes a diffusive process. It predicts unnatural infinite transmission speed for parts of local heat pulses. At room temperature, for example, these parts are strongly damped. Thus, in these cases most engineering applications are described satisfactorily by the classical theory. However, in some situations the predictions according to Fourier’s law fail miserable. One of these situations occurs at temperatures near absolute zero, where the phenomenon of second sound1 was discovered in the 20th century. Consequently, non-classical theories experienced great research interest during the recent decades. Throughout this thesis, the expression “non-classical” refers to the fact that the constitutive equation of the heat flux is not based on Fourier’s law. Fourier’s classical theory hypothesizes that the heat flux is proportional to the temperature gradient. A new thermoelastic theory, on the one hand, needs to be consistent with classical thermoelastodynamics and, on the other hand, needs to describe second sound accurately. Hence, during the second half of the last century the traditional parabolic heat equation was replaced by a hyperbolic one. Its coupling with elasticity leads to non-classical thermomechanics which allows the modeling of second sound, provides a passage to the classical theory and additionally overcomes the paradox of infinite wave speed. Although much effort is put into non-classical theories, the thermoelastodynamic community has not yet agreed on one approach and a systematic research is going on worldwide.Computational methods play an important role for solving thermoelastic problems in engineering sciences. Usually this is due to the complex structure of the equations at hand. This thesis aims at establishing a basic theory and numerical treatment of non-classical thermoelasticity (rather than dealing with special cases). The finite element method is already widely accepted in the field of structural solid mechanics and enjoys a growing significance in thermal analyses. This approach resorts to a finite element method in space as well as in time.