## Fachbereich Maschinenbau und Verfahrenstechnik

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- Recycling of Ground Tyre Rubber and Polyolefin Wastes by Producing Thermoplastic Elastomers (2005)
- This thesis deals with the development of thermoplastic polyolefin elastomers using recycled polyolefins and ground tyre rubber (GTR). The disposal of worn tyres and their economic recycling mean a great challenge nowadays. Material recycling is a preferred way in Europa owing to legislative actions and ecological arguments. This first step with worn tyres is already done in this direc-tion as GTR is available in different fractions in guaranteed quality. As the traditional applications of GTR are saturated, there is a great demand for new, value-added products containing GTR. So, the objective of this work was to convert GTR by reac-tive blending with polyolefins into thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) of suitable me-chanical and rheological properties. It has been established that bituminous reclamation of GTR prior to extrusion melt compounding with polyolefins is a promising way of TPE production. By this way the sol-content (acetone soluble fraction) of the GTR increases and the GTR particles can be better incorporated in the corresponding polyolefin matrix. The adhesion be-tween GTR and matrix is given by molecular intermingling in the resulting interphase. GTR particles of various production and mean particle size were involved in this study. As polyolefins recycled low-density polyethylene (LDPE), recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP) were selected. First, the opti-mum conditions for the GTR reclamation in bitumen were established (160 °C < T < 180 °C; time ca. 4 hours). Polyolefin based TPEs were produced after GTR reclamation in extrusion compounding. Their mechanical (tensile behaviour, set properties), thermal (dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry) and rheological properties (both in low- and high-shear rates ) were determined. The PE-based blends contained an ethylene/propylene/diene (EPDM) rubber as compatibilizer and their composition was as follows: PE/EPDM/GTR:bitumen = 50/25/25:25. The selected TPEs met the most important criterion, i.e. elongation at break > 100 %; compression set < 50%. The LDPE-based TPE (TPE(LDPE)) showed better me-chanical performance compared to the TPE(HDPE). This was assigned to the higher crystallinity of the HDPE. The PP-based blends of the compositions PP/(GTR-bitumen) 50/50 and 25/75, whereby the ratio of GTR/bitumen was 60/40, outperformed those containing non-reclaimed GTR. The related blends showed also a better compatibility with a PP-based commercial thermoplastic dynamic vulcanizate (TDV). Surprisingly, the mean particle size of the GTR, varied between < 0.2 and 0.4-0.7 mm, had a small effect on the mechanical properties, however somewhat larger for the rheological behaviour of the TPEs produced.

- Computational Modeling of Domain Switching Effects in Piezoceramic Materials -- A Micro-Macro Mechanical Approach (2005)
- Within the last decades, a remarkable development in materials science took place -- nowadays, materials are not only constructed for the use of inert structures but rather designed for certain predefined functions. This innovation was accompanied with the appearance of smart materials with reliable recognition, discrimination and capability of action as well as reaction. Even though ferroelectric materials serve smartly in real applications, they also possess several restrictions at high performance usage. The behavior of these materials is almost linear under the action of low electric fields or low mechanical stresses, but exhibits strong non-linear response under high electric fields or mechanical stresses. High electromechanical loading conditions result in a change of the spontaneous polarization direction with respect to individual domains, which is commonly referred to as domain switching. The aim of the present work is to develop a three-dimensional coupled finite element model, to study the rate-independent and rate-dependent behavior of piezoelectric materials including domain switching based on a micromechanical approach. The proposed model is first elaborated within a two-dimensional finite element setting for piezoelectric materials. Subsequently, the developed two-dimensional model is extended to the three-dimensional case. This work starts with developing a micromechanical model for ferroelectric materials. Ferroelectric materials exhibit ferroelectric domain switching, which refers to the reorientation of domains and occurs under purely electrical loading. For the simulation, a bulk piezoceramic material is considered and each grain is represented by one finite element. In reality, the grains in the bulk ceramics material are randomly oriented. This property is taken into account by applying random orientation as well as uniform distribution for individual elements. Poly-crystalline ferroelectric materials at un-poled virgin state can consequently be characterized by randomly oriented polarization vectors. Energy reduction of individual domains is adopted as a criterion for the initiation of domain switching processes. The macroscopic response of the bulk material is predicted by classical volume-averaging techniques. In general, domain switching does not only depend on external loads but also on neighboring grains, which is commonly denoted as the grain boundary effect. These effects are incorporated into the developed framework via a phenomenologically motivated probabilistic approach by relating the actual energy level to a critical energy level. Subsequently, the order of the chosen polynomial function is optimized so that simulations nicely match measured data. A rate-dependent polarization framework is proposed, which is applied to cyclic electrical loading at various frequencies. The reduction in free energy of a grain is used as a criterion for the onset of the domain switching processes. Nucleation in new grains and propagation of the domain walls during domain switching is modeled by a linear kinetics theory. The simulated results show that for increasing loading frequency the macroscopic coercive field is also increasing and the remanent polarization increases at lower loading amplitudes. The second part of this work is focused on ferroelastic domain switching, which refers to the reorientation of domains under purely mechanical loading. Under sufficiently high mechanical loading, however, the strain directions within single domains reorient with respect to the applied loading direction. The reduction in free energy of a grain is used as a criterion for the domain switching process. The macroscopic response of the bulk material is computed for the hysteresis curve (stress vs strain) whereby uni-axial and quasi-static loading conditions are applied on the bulk material specimen. Grain boundary effects are addressed by incorporating the developed probabilistic approach into this framework and the order of the polynomial function is optimized so that simulations match measured data. Rate dependent domain switching effects are captured for various frequencies and mechanical loading amplitudes by means of the developed volume fraction concept which relates the particular time interval to the switching portion. The final part of this work deals with ferroelectric and ferroelastic domain switching and refers to the reorientation of domains under coupled electromechanical loading. If this free energy for combined electromechanical loading exceeds the critical energy barrier elements are allowed to switch. Firstly, hysteresis and butterfly curves under purely electrical loading are discussed. Secondly, additional mechanical loads in axial and lateral directions are applied to the specimen. The simulated results show that an increasing compressive stress results in enlarged domain switching ranges and that the hysteresis and butterfly curves flatten at higher mechanical loading levels.

- Diffusion, Viscosity, and Thermodynamics in Liquid Systems (2005)
- This thesis aims at an overall improvement of the diffusion coefficient predictions. For this reason the theoretical determination of diffusion, viscosity, and thermodynamics in liquid systems is discussed. Furthermore, the experimental determination of diffusion coefficients is also part of this work. All investigations presented are carried out for organic binary liquid mixtures. Diffusion coefficient data of 9 highly nonideal binary mixtures are reported over the whole concentration range at various temperatures, (25, 30, and 35) °C. All mixtures investigated in a Taylor dispersion apparatus consist of an alcohol (ethanol, 1-propanol, or 1-butanol) dissolved in hexane, cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, or toluene. The uncertainty of the reported data is estimated to be within 310-11 m2s-1. To compute the thermodynamic correction factor an excess Gibbs energy model is required. Therefore, the applicability of COSMOSPACE to binary VLE predictions is thoroughly investigated. For this purpose a new method is developed to determine the required molecular parameters such as segment types, areas, volumes, and interaction parameters. So-called sigma profiles form the basis of this approach which describe the screening charge densities appearing on a molecule’s surface. To improve the prediction results a constrained two-parameter fitting strategy is also developed. These approaches are crucial to guarantee the physical significance of the segment parameters. Finally, the prediction quality of this approach is compared to the findings of the Wilson model, UNIQUAC, and the a priori predictive method COSMO-RS for a broad range of thermodynamic situations. The results show that COSMOSPACE yields results of similar quality compared to the Wilson model, while both perform much better than UNIQUAC and COSMO-RS. Since viscosity influences also the diffusion process, a new mixture viscosity model has been developed on the basis of Eyring’s absolute reaction rate theory. The nonidealities of the mixture are accounted for with the thermodynamically consistent COSMOSPACE approach. The required model and component parameters are derived from sigma-profiles, which form the basis of the a priori predictive method COSMO-RS. To improve the model performance two segment parameters are determined from a least-squares analysis to experimental viscosity data, whereas a constraint optimisation procedure is applied. In this way the parameters retain their physical meaning. Finally, the viscosity calculations of this approach are compared to the findings of the Eyring-UNIQUAC model for a broad range of chemical mixtures. These results show that the new Eyring-COSMOSPACE approach is superior to the frequently employed Eyring-UNIQUAC method. Finally, on the basis of Eyring’s absolute reaction rate theory a new model for the Maxwell-Stefan diffusivity has been developed. This model, an extension of the Vignes equation, describes the concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient in terms of the diffusivities at infinite dilution and an additional excess Gibbs energy contribution. This energy part allows the explicit consideration of thermodynamic nonidealities within the modelling of this transport property. If the same set of interaction parameters, which has been derived from VLE data, is applied for this part and for the thermodynamic correction, a theoretically sound modelling of VLE and diffusion can be achieved. The influence of viscosity and thermodynamics on the model accuracy is thoroughly investigated. For this purpose diffusivities of 85 binary mixtures consisting of alkanes, cycloalkanes, halogenated alkanes, aromatics, ketones, and alcohols are computed. The average relative deviation between experimental data and computed values is approximately 8 % depending on the choice of the gE-model. These results indicate that this model is superior to some widely used methods. In summary, it can be said that the new approach facilitates the prediction of diffusion coefficients. The final equation is mathematically simple, universally applicable, and the prediction quality is as good as other models recently developed without having to worry about additional parameters, like pure component physical property data, self diffusion coefficients, or mixture viscosities. In contrast to many other models, the influence of the mixture viscosity can be omitted. Though a viscosity model is not required in the prediction of diffusion coefficients with the new equation, the models presented in this work allow a consistent modelling approach of diffusion, viscosity, and thermodynamics in liquid systems.