## Fachbereich Maschinenbau und Verfahrenstechnik

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- Dissertation (221)
- Preprint (17)
- Habilitation (4)
- Wissenschaftlicher Artikel (1)
- Studienarbeit (1)

#### Schlagworte

A Consistent Large Eddy Approach for Lattice Boltzmann Methods and its Application to Complex Flows
(2015)

Lattice Boltzmann Methods have shown to be promising tools for solving fluid flow problems. This is related to the advantages of these methods, which are among others, the simplicity in handling complex geometries and the high efficiency in calculating transient flows. Lattice Boltzmann Methods are mesoscopic methods, based on discrete particle dynamics. This is in contrast to conventional Computational Fluid Dynamics methods, which are based on the solution of the continuum equations. Calculations of turbulent flows in engineering depend in general on modeling, since resolving of all turbulent scales is and will be in near future far beyond the computational possibilities. One of the most auspicious modeling approaches is the large eddy simulation, in which the large, inhomogeneous turbulence structures are directly computed and the smaller, more homogeneous structures are modeled.
In this thesis, a consistent large eddy approach for the Lattice Boltzmann Method is introduced. This large eddy model includes, besides a subgrid scale model, appropriate boundary conditions for wall resolved and wall modeled calculations. It also provides conditions for turbulent domain inlets. For the case of wall modeled simulations, a two layer wall model is derived in the Lattice Boltzmann context. Turbulent inlet conditions are achieved by means of a synthetic turbulence technique within the Lattice Boltzmann Method.
The proposed approach is implemented in the Lattice Boltzmann based CFD package SAM-Lattice, which has been created in the course of this work. SAM-Lattice is feasible of the calculation of incompressible or weakly compressible, isothermal flows of engineering interest in complex three dimensional domains. Special design targets of SAM-Lattice are high automatization and high performance.
Validation of the suggested large eddy Lattice Boltzmann scheme is performed for pump intake flows, which have not yet been treated by LBM. Even though, this numerical method is very suitable for this kind of vortical flows in complicated domains. In general, applications of LBM to hydrodynamic engineering problems are rare. The results of the pump intake validation cases reveal that the proposed numerical approach is able to represent qualitatively and quantitatively the very complex flows in the intakes. The findings provided in this thesis can serve as the basis for a broader application of LBM in hydrodynamic engineering problems.

The detection and characterisation of undesired lead structures on shaft surfaces is a concern in production and quality control of rotary shaft lip-type sealing systems. The potential lead structures are generally divided into macro and micro lead based on their characteristics and formation. Macro lead measurement methods exist and are widely applied. This work describes a method to characterise micro lead on ground shaft surfaces. Micro lead is known as the deviation of main orientation of the ground micro texture from circumferential direction. Assessing the orientation of microscopic structures with arc minute accuracy with regard to circumferential direction requires exact knowledge of both the shaft’s orientation and the direction of surface texture. The shaft’s circumferential direction is found by calibration. Measuring systems and calibration procedures capable of calibrating shaft axis orientation with high accuracy and low uncertainty are described. The measuring systems employ areal-topographic measuring instruments suited for evaluating texture orientation. A dedicated evaluation scheme for texture orientation is based on the Radon transform of these topographies and parametrised for the application. Combining the calibration of circumferential direction with the evaluation of texture orientation the method enables the measurement of micro lead on ground shaft surfaces.

The present situation of control engineering in the context of automated production can be described as a tension field between its desired outcome and its actual consideration. On the one hand, the share of control engineering compared to the other engineering domains has significantly increased within the last decades due to rising automation degrees of production processes and equipment. On the other hand, the control engineering domain is still underrepresented within the production engineering process. Another limiting factor constitutes a lack of methods and tools to decrease the amount of software engineering efforts and to permit the development of innovative automation applications that ideally support the business requirements.
This thesis addresses this challenging situation by means of the development of a new control engineering methodology. The foundation is built by concepts from computer science to promote structuring and abstraction mechanisms for the software development. In this context, the key sources for this thesis are the paradigm of Service-oriented Architecture and concepts from Model-driven Engineering. To mold these concepts into an integrated engineering procedure, ideas from Systems Engineering are applied. The overall objective is to develop an engineering methodology to improve the efficiency of control engineering by a higher adaptability of control software and decreased programming efforts by reuse.

The simulation of cutting process challenges established methods due to large deformations and topological changes. In this work a particle finite element method (PFEM) is presented, which combines the benefits of discrete modeling techniques and methods based on continuum mechanics. A crucial part of the PFEM is the detection of the boundary of a set of particles. The impact of this boundary detection method on the structural integrity is examined and a relation of the key parameter of the method to the eigenvalues of strain tensors is elaborated. The influence of important process parameters on the cutting force is studied and a comparison to an empirical relation is presented.

This thesis is concerned with a phase field model for martensitic transformations in metastable austenitic steels. Within the phase field approach an order parameter is introduced to indicate whether the present phase is austenite or martensite. The evolving microstructure is described by the evolution of the order parameter, which is assumed to follow the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. The elastic phase field model is enhanced in two different ways to take further phenomena into account. First, dislocation movement is considered by a crystal plasticity setting. Second, the elastic model for martensitic transformations is combined with a phase field model for fracture. Finite element simulations are used to study the single effects separately which contribute to the microstructure formation.

The main goal of this work is to model size effects, as they occur in materials with an intrinsic microstructure at the consideration of specimens that are not by orders larger than this microstructure. The micromorphic continuum theory as a generalized continuum theory is well suited to account for the occuring size effects. Thereby additional degrees of freedoms capture the independent deformations of these microstructures, while they provide additional balance equation. In this thesis, the deformational and configurational mechanics of the micromorphic continuum is exploited in a finite-deformation setting. A constitutive and numerical framework is developed, in which also the material-force method is advanced. Furthermore the multiscale modelling of thin material layers with a heterogeneous substructure is of interest. To this end, a computational homogenization framework is developed, which allows to obtain the constitutive relation between traction and separation based on the properties of the underlying micromorphic mesostructure numerically in a nested solution scheme. Within the context of micromorphic continuum mechanics, concepts of both gradient and micromorphic plasticity are developed by systematically varying key ingredients of the respective formulations.

The present thesis describes the development and validation of a viscosity adaption method for the numerical simulation of non-Newtonian fluids on the basis of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), as well as the development and verification of the related software bundle SAM-Lattice.
By now, Lattice Boltzmann Methods are established as an alternative approach to classical computational fluid dynamics
methods. The LBM has been shown to be an accurate and efficient tool for the numerical simulation of weakly compressible or incompressible fluids. Fields of application reach from turbulent simulations through thermal problems to acoustic calculations among others. The transient nature of the method and the need for a regular grid based, non body conformal discretization makes the LBM ideally suitable for simulations involving complex solids. Such geometries are common, for instance, in the food processing industry, where fluids are mixed by static mixers or agitators. Those fluid flows are often laminar and non-Newtonian.
This work is motivated by the immense practical use of the Lattice Boltzmann Method, which is limited due to stability issues. The stability of the method is mainly influenced by the discretization and the viscosity of the fluid. Thus, simulations of non-Newtonian fluids, whose kinematic viscosity depend on the shear rate, are problematic. Several authors have shown that the LBM is capable of simulating those fluids. However, the vast majority of the simulations in the literature are carried out for simple geometries and/or moderate shear rates, where the LBM is still stable. Special care has to be taken for practical non-Newtonian Lattice Boltzmann simulations in order to keep them stable. A straightforward way is to truncate the modeled viscosity range by numerical stability criteria. This is an effective approach, but from the physical point of view the viscosity bounds are chosen arbitrarily. Moreover, these bounds depend on and vary with the grid and time step size and, therefore, with the simulation Mach number, which is freely chosen at the start of the simulation. Consequently, the modeled viscosity range may not fit to the actual range of the physical problem, because the correct simulation Mach number is unknown a priori. A way around is, to perform precursor simulations on a fixed grid to determine a possible time step size and simulation Mach number, respectively. These precursor simulations can be time consuming and expensive, especially for complex cases and a number of operating points. This makes the LBM unattractive for use in practical simulations of non-Newtonian fluids.
The essential novelty of the method, developed in the course of this thesis, is that the numerically modeled viscosity range is consistently adapted to the actual physically exhibited viscosity range through change of the simulation time step and the simulation Mach number, respectively, while the simulation is running. The algorithm is robust, independent of the Mach number the simulation was started with, and applicable for stationary flows as well as transient flows. The method for the viscosity adaption will be referred to as the "viscosity adaption method (VAM)" and the combination with LBM leads to the "viscosity adaptive LBM (VALBM)".
Besides the introduction of the VALBM, a goal of this thesis is to offer assistance in the spirit of a theory guide to students and assistant researchers concerning the theory of the Lattice Boltzmann Method and its implementation in SAM-Lattice. In Chapter 2, the mathematical foundation of the LBM is given and the route from the BGK approximation of the Boltzmann equation to the Lattice Boltzmann (BGK) equation is delineated in detail.
The derivation is restricted to isothermal flows only. Restrictions of the method, such as low Mach number flows are highlighted and the accuracy of the method is discussed.
SAM-Lattice is a C++ software bundle developed by the author and his colleague Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Schneider. It is a highly automated package for the simulation of isothermal flows of incompressible or weakly compressible fluids in 3D on the basis of the Lattice Boltzmann Method. By the time of writing of this thesis, SAM-Lattice comprises 5 components. The main components are the highly automated lattice generator SamGenerator and the Lattice Boltzmann solver SamSolver. Postprocessing is done with ParaSam, which is our extension of the
open source visualization software ParaView. Additionally, domain decomposition for MPI
parallelism is done by SamDecomposer, which makes use of the graph partitioning library MeTiS. Finally, all mentioned components can be controlled through a user friendly GUI (SamLattice) implemented by the author using QT, including features to visually track output data.
In Chapter 3, some fundamental aspects on the implementation of the main components, including the corresponding flow charts will be discussed. Actual details on the implementation are given in the comprehensive programmers guides to SamGenerator and SamSolver.
In order to ensure the functionality of the implementation of SamSolver, the solver is verified in Chapter 4 for Stokes's First Problem, the suddenly accelerated plate, and for Stokes's Second Problem, the oscillating plate, both for Newtonian fluids. Non-Newtonian fluids are modeled in SamSolver with the power-law model according to Ostwald de Waele. The implementation for non-Newtonian fluids is verified for the Hagen-Poiseuille channel flow in conjunction with a convergence analysis of the method. At the same time, the local grid refinement as it is implemented in SamSolver, is verified. Finally, the verification of higher order boundary conditions is done for the 3D Hagen-Poiseuille pipe flow for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
In Chapter 5, the theory of the viscosity adaption method is introduced. For the adaption process, a target collision frequency or target simulation Mach number must be chosen and the distributions must be rescaled according to the modified time step size. A convenient choice is one of the stability bounds. The time step size for the adaption step is deduced from the target collision frequency \(\Omega_t\) and the currently minimal or maximal shear rate in the system, while obeying auxiliary conditions for the simulation Mach number. The adaption is done in the collision step of the Lattice Boltzmann algorithm. We use the transformation matrices of the MRT model to map from distribution space to moment space and vice versa. The actual scaling of the distributions is conducted on the back mapping, because we use the transformation matrix on the basis of the new adaption time step size. It follows an additional rescaling of the non-equilibrium part of the distributions, because of the form of the definition for the discrete stress tensor in the LBM context. For that reason it is clear, that the VAM is applicable for the SRT model as well as the MRT model, where there is virtually no extra cost in the latter case. Also, in Chapter 5, the multi level treatment will be discussed.
Depending on the target collision frequency and the target Mach number, the VAM can be used to optimally use the viscosity range that can be modeled within the stability bounds or it can be used to drastically accelerate the simulation. This is shown in Chapter 6. The viscosity adaptive LBM is verified in the stationary case for the Hagen-Poiseuille channel flow and in the transient case for the Wormersley flow, i.e., the pulsatile 3D Hagen-Poiseuille pipe flow. Although, the VAM is used here for fluids that can be modeled with the power-law approach, the implementation of the VALBM is straightforward for other non-Newtonian models, e.g., the Carreau-Yasuda or Cross model. In the same chapter, the VALBM is validated for the case of a propeller viscosimeter developed at the chair SAM. To this end, the experimental data of the torque on the impeller of three shear thinning non-Newtonian liquids serve for the validation. The VALBM shows excellent agreement with experimental data for all of the investigated fluids and in every operating point. For reasons of comparison, a series of standard LBM simulations is carried out with different simulation Mach numbers, which partly show errors of several hundred percent. Moreover, in Chapter 7, a sensitivity analysis on the parameters used within the VAM is conducted for the simulation of the propeller viscosimeter.
Finally, the accuracy of non-Newtonian Lattice Boltzmann simulations with the SRT and the MRT model is analyzed in detail. Previous work for Newtonian fluids indicate that depending on the numerical value of the collision frequency \(\Omega\), additional artificial viscosity is introduced due to the finite difference scheme, which negatively influences the accuracy. For the non-Newtonian case, an error estimate in the form of a functional is derived on the basis of a series expansion of the Lattice Boltzmann equation. This functional can be solved analytically for the case of the Hagen-Poiseuille channel flow of non-Newtonian fluids. The estimation of the error minimum is excellent in regions where the \(\Omega\) error is the dominant source of error as opposed to the compressibility error.
Result of this dissertation is a verified and validated software bundle on the basis of the viscosity adaptive Lattice Boltzmann Method. The work restricts itself on the simulation of isothermal, laminar flows with small Mach numbers. As further research goals, the testing of the VALBM with minimal error estimate and the investigation of the VALBM in the case of turbulent flows is suggested.

Adaptive Strukturoptimierung von Faserkunststoffverbunden unter Berücksichtigung bionischer Aspekte
(2006)

Es finden immer häufiger Faserverbundmaterialien in Strukturbauteilen Anwendung,
da bei konventionellen Materialien die Zielkriterien, wie definierte Festigkeit, Steifigkeit,
etc. nicht mehr bzw. nicht mit hinreichend geringem Bauteilgewicht erreicht werden
können. Angesichts der hohen Kosten ist es verständlich, dass Faserkunststoffverbunde
(FKV) vorzugsweise in den Bereichen eingesetzt werden, wo die eingangs
erwähnten Optimierungsziele hohe Priorität haben. Besonders hervorzuheben ist
hierbei die Luft- und Raumfahrt. Zunehmende Bedeutung gewinnt der Einsatz von
Faserverbundwerkstoffen aber auch in der Automobil- bzw. Maschinenbauindustrie.
Mit fortschreitender Verbesserung der Optimierungsmethoden sowie der Fertigungstechnologien
und der damit verbundenen Kostenreduktion, werden heute bereits
komplexe Module hergestellt. Das zieht wiederum eine lastgerechte und werkstoffspezifische
Konstruktion nach sich. Gegenstand der Arbeit ist die Entwicklung eines
Topologieoptimierungswerkzeuges zur werkstoffgerechten Auslegung von FKVStrukturen.
Ziel ist, FKV - eine Klasse von Hochleistungswerkstoffen, deren Potenzial
sich nur mit geeigneten Modellen zur Nutzung ihrer anisotropen Eigenschaften ausschöpfen
lässt - unter Berücksichtigung der technischen Realisierbarkeit zu optimieren.
Dabei werden natürliche Wachstumsprinzipien in einen iterativen Prozess überführt.
Als Ziel dieses Algorithmus kann entweder eine gezielte Steifigkeit oder eine
gewichtsoptimale Lösung bei hinreichender Festigkeit mit möglichst gleichmäßiger
Spannungsverteilung im Bauteil definiert werden. Erreicht wird dies durch eine effektive
Lastverteilung von hoch belasteten auf geringer belastete Bereiche und somit
auch die Optimierung der Materialverteilung. In diesem Designvorschlag wird die
Grundorientierung der Basisschicht, die kraftflussgerechte Orientierung der Laminateinzellagen
sowie die Topologie von Zulagenschichten bzw. des Gesamtlaminates
optimiert. Besonders interessant ist die adaptive Strukturoptimierung von FKVStrukturen
bei lokalen Zulagen an hoch belasteten Krafteinleitungsstellen bzw. allgemein
in Bereichen hoher Spannungen. Wie weiterhin gezeigt wird, ist die entwickelte
adaptive Topologie- und Faserwinkeloptimierung in Kombination aus technologischer,werkstoffmechanischer sowie wirtschaftlicher Sicht vorteilhaft und kann
problemlos in der Praxis angewandt werden.
More and more fibre-reinforced composite materials are being used in structural building
components because with conventional materials, the target criteria, such as
defined strength, rigidity etc. can no longer be achieved with a sufficiently low weight
of the structural components, if at all. In view of the high costs, it is understandable
that fibre-reinforced plastic composites tend to be used in technical areas where the
optimization goals mentioned above have a high priority. The aviation and aerospace
industry deserves special mention here. The use of fibre composite materials is also
gaining significance in the automotive and mechanical engineering industry. Thanks
to increasing improvements in optimization methods and manufacturing technologies
and the reduction in costs that this brings with it, complex modules are being produced
even today. This in turn ensures specific-material construction with the necessary
load-bearing properties. The objective of the presentation is the development of
a topology optimization tool for designing Fibre-plastic-composite (FPC)-structures
which is appropriate for each material involved. The objective is to optimize FPC – a
class of high-performance materials the potential of which can only be exploited with
suitable models for the utilization of their anisotropic properties – under consideration
of their capability for technical realization. In doing so, natural growth principles are
implemented into an iterative process, thereby enabling computer simulation. The
main goal of this algorithm is maximum rigidity with as even a distribution of tension
as possible throughout the component, which is achieved by distributing the load
from high-load to lower load bearing areas, thereby optimizing the material distribution.
The weight optimization of specific components is possible in this way. The basic
orientation of the base layer, the orientation of the individual laminate layers in a
manner appropriate to the power flux, as well as the topology of bonding layers
and/or the entire laminate are optimized in this design recommendation. Of particular
interest here is the adaptive structural optimization of FPC structures with localized
bonding to high-load bearing load introduction points or generally, in areas with high
stresses. As continues to be shown, the developed adaptive topology and fibre angle optimization is beneficial from a technological, material-mechanical and economical
point of view, and can be applied in everyday practice without any problems.

In recent years the field of polymer tribology experienced a tremendous development
leading to an increased demand for highly sophisticated in-situ measurement methods.
Therefore, advanced measurement techniques were developed and established
in this study. Innovative approaches based on dynamic thermocouple, resistive electrical
conductivity, and confocal distance measurement methods were developed in
order to in-situ characterize both the temperature at sliding interfaces and real contact
area, and furthermore the thickness of transfer films. Although dynamic thermocouple
and real contact area measurement techniques were already used in similar
applications for metallic sliding pairs, comprehensive modifications were necessary to
meet the specific demands and characteristics of polymers and composites since
they have significantly different thermal conductivities and contact kinematics. By using
tribologically optimized PEEK compounds as reference a new measurement and
calculation model for the dynamic thermocouple method was set up. This method
allows the determination of hot spot temperatures for PEEK compounds, and it was
found that they can reach up to 1000 °C in case of short carbon fibers present in the
polymer. With regard to the non-isotropic characteristics of the polymer compound,
the contact situation between short carbon fibers and steel counterbody could be
successfully monitored by applying a resistive measurement method for the real contact
area determination. Temperature compensation approaches were investigated
for the transfer film layer thickness determination, resulting in in-situ measurements
with a resolution of ~0.1 μm. In addition to a successful implementation of the measurement
systems, failure mechanism processes were clarified for the PEEK compound
used. For the first time in polymer tribology the behavior of the most interesting
system parameters could be monitored simultaneously under increasing load
conditions. It showed an increasing friction coefficient, wear rate, transfer film layer
thickness, and specimen overall temperature when frictional energy exceeded the
thermal transport capabilities of the specimen. In contrast, the real contact area between
short carbon fibers and steel decreased due to the separation effect caused by
the transfer film layer. Since the sliding contact was more and more matrix dominated,
the hot spot temperatures on the fibers dropped, too. The results of this failure
mechanism investigation already demonstrate the opportunities which the new
measurement techniques provide for a deeper understanding of tribological processes,
enabling improvements in material composition and application design.

An efficient multiscale approach is established in order to compute the macroscopic response of nonlinear composites. The micro problem is rewritten in an integral form of the Lippmann-Schwinger type and solved efficiently by Fast Fourier Transforms. Using realistic microstructure models complex nonlinear effects are reproduced and validated with measured data of fiber reinforced plastics. The micro problem is integrated in a Finite Element framework which is used to solve the macroscale. The scale coupling technique and a consistent numerical algorithm is established. The method provides an efficient way to determine the macroscopic response considering arbitrary microstructures, constitutive behaviors and loading conditions.