Nowadays, accounting, charging and billing users' network resource consumption are commonly used for the purpose of facilitating reasonable network usage, controlling congestion, allocating cost, gaining revenue, etc. In traditional IP traffic accounting systems, IP addresses are used to identify the corresponding consumers of the network resources. However, there are some situations in which IP addresses cannot be used to identify users uniquely, for example, in multi-user systems. In these cases, network resource consumption can only be ascribed to the owners of these hosts instead of corresponding real users who have consumed the network resources. Therefore, accurate accountability in these systems is practically impossible. This is a flaw of the traditional IP address based IP traffic accounting technique. This dissertation proposes a user based IP traffic accounting model which can facilitate collecting network resource usage information on the basis of users. With user based IP traffic accounting, IP traffic can be distinguished not only by IP addresses but also by users. In this dissertation, three different schemes, which can achieve the user based IP traffic accounting mechanism, are discussed in detail. The inband scheme utilizes the IP header to convey the user information of the corresponding IP packet. The Accounting Agent residing in the measured host intercepts IP packets passing through it. Then it identifies the users of these IP packets and inserts user information into the IP packets. With this mechanism, a meter located in a key position of the network can intercept the IP packets tagged with user information, extract not only statistic information, but also IP addresses and user information from the IP packets to generate accounting records with user information. The out-of-band scheme is a contrast scheme to the in-band scheme. It also uses an Accounting Agent to intercept IP packets and identify the users of IP traffic. However, the user information is transferred through a separated channel, which is different from the corresponding IP packets' transmission. The Multi-IP scheme provides a different solution for identifying users of IP traffic. It assigns each user in a measured host a unique IP address. Through that, an IP address can be used to identify a user uniquely without ambiguity. This way, traditional IP address based accounting techniques can be applied to achieve the goal of user based IP traffic accounting. In this dissertation, a user based IP traffic accounting prototype system developed according to the out-of-band scheme is also introduced. The application of user based IP traffic accounting model in the distributed computing environment is also discussed.
The Super-Peer Selection Problem is an optimization problem in network topology construction. It may be cast as a special case of a Hub Location Problem, more exactly an Uncapacitated Single Allocation p-Hub Median Problem with equal weights. We show that this problem is still NP-hard by reduction from Max Clique.
This technical report is the Emerging Trends proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics (TPHOLs 2007), which was held during 10-13 September in Kaiserslautern, Germany. TPHOLs covers all aspects of theorem proving in higher order logics as well as related topics in theorem proving and veriﬁcation.
To analyze scenery obstacles in robotics applications depth information is very valuable. Stereo vision is a powerful way to extract dense range information out of two camera images. In order to unload the CPU the intensive computation can be moved to GPU, taking advantage of the parallel processing capabilities of todays consumer level graphics hardware. This work shows how an efficient implementation on the GPU can be realized utilizing the NVIDIA Cuda framework.
This technical report contains the preliminary versions of the regular papers presented at the first workshop on Verification of Adaptive Systems (VerAS) that has been held in Kaiserslautern, Germany, on September 14th, 2007 as part of the 20th International Conference on Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics. The final versions will be published with Elsevier's Electronic Notes on Theoretical Computer Science (ENTCS). VerAS is the first workshop that aims at considering adaptation as a cross-cutting system aspect that needs to be explicitly addressed in system design and verification. The program committee called for original submissions on formal modeling, specification, verification, and implementation of adaptive systems. There were six submissions from different countries of Europe. Each submission has been reviewed by three programme committee members. Finally, the programme committee decided to accept three of the six submissions. Besides the presentations of the regular papers, the workshop's programme included a tutorial on the `Compositional Verification of Self-Optimizing Mechatronic Systems' held by Holger Giese (University of Paderborn, Germany) as well as three presentations of DASMOD projects on the verification of adaptive systems.
Embedded systems are becoming more and more important in today’s life in many ways. They can be found in dishwashers, mobile phones, coffee machines, PDAs, etc. Although there is no common definition of what an embedded system is, it can be generally defined as a special-purpose information processing system, containing both: software and hardware. Embedded systems are integrated in a larger systems which interact with environment for achieving a set of predefined tasks or applications. In general, embedded systems are characterized by resources scarcity, among which energy is becoming more and more important (especially the energy consumed by the processor). The energy consumed by an embedded system is strongly influenced by the software running on it (the embedded software). That is why it is crucial to explore the software characteristics that have an influence on the energy consumption, and to understand how this influence could be represented. In order to realize this task, there is a need for the construction of a reliable measurement platform for energy consumption by embedded devices. The target of this work is to design and implement a framework for measuring energy consumption of embedded software. This framework is based on the XScale architecture, a popular Intel platform designed for energy aware applications. The framework has a software repository which contains a number of programs (user-defined) that are supposed to run on the mentioned platform. These program codes are the input of the framework. Automated measurements for energy consumption are performed on all programs for gathering the required information. In the context of this work, a first evaluation of the framework was performed to make an initial check its quality.
In urban planning, sophisticated simulation models are key tools to estimate future population growth for measuring the impact of planning decisions on urban developments and the environment. Simulated population projections usually result in large, macro-scale, multivariate geospatial data sets. Millions of records have to be processed, stored, and visualized to help planners explore and analyze complex population patterns. We introduce a database driven framework for visualizing geospatial multidimensional simulation data based on the output from UrbanSim, a software for the analysis and planning of urban developments. The designed framework is extendable and aims at integrating empirical-stochastic methods and urban simulation models with techniques developed for information visualization and cartography. First, we develop an empirical model for the estimation of residential building types based on demographic household characteristics. The predicted dwelling type information is important for the analysis of future material use, carbon footprint calculations, and for visualizing simultaneously the results of land usage, density, and other significant parameters in 3D space. Our model uses multinomial logistic regression to derive building types at different scales. The estimated regression coefficients are applied to UrbanSim output in order to predict residential building types. The simulation results and the estimated building types are managed in an object-relational geodatabase. From the database, density, building types, and significant demographic variables are visually encoded as scalable, georeferenced 3D geometries and displayed on top of aerial photographs in a Google Earth visual synthesis. The geodatabase can be accessed and the visualization parameters can be chosen through a web-based user interface. The geometries are encoded in KML, Google's markup language, as ready-to-visualize data sets. The goal is to enhance human cognition by displaying abstract representations of multidimensional data sets in a realistic context and thus to support decision making in planning processes.
The IEEE 802.11 networks have a tremendous growth in the last years, but also now there is a rapid development of the wireless LAN technologies. High transmission rates, simple deployment and especially low costs make this network technology an efficient and cheap way to get access to the Internet. Fon is the world-wide greatest WIFI community and in January 2007 this community offers more than 11.000 access points in Germany and nearly 55.000 all over the world. However, this technology has also his shady sides. For example, it is possible for everyone to receive data from the wireless medium. So a protection against this open data traffic is a encryption mechanism called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). The tragic end of theWired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and the simplicity of various Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks on the wireless medium have resulted in giving up the security at the logical-link layer and shifting it to upper layers (or in the best case leaving it within virtual private networks (VPNs)). Nevertheless, there is an enormous growth in using public access to the Internet via HotSpots in cafés, libraries, schools or at airports, train stops etc. Therefore, it is important for the Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISP) to make sure that anyone with a usual wireless device can connect to their access points. Offering this service to anybody makes giving a sufficient level of security very difficult. On the one hand it should be easy for everyone to use this access, on the other hand there is, in most cases, no security. A businessman is not very pleased about phishing his account data for a great enterprise or for his online office like the KIS at the University of Technology in Kaiserslautern. In most cases the WISPs use a simple web based authentication mechanism. By connecting to the WISPs services, the user is redirected to a webpage requesting his login data or credit card information. Therefore the user only needs a wireless LAN device and a webbrowser to authenticate. An attacker could sniff on the wireless medium to phish delicate data from a legal connected user or use DoS attacks as initial point for various other attacks. In most cases, this can be done with no or only small effort. On the other side, in some cases, the WISP has to do a hard reset on his wireless devices after a DoS attack. Therefore an analysis of access points is done in this work. So, the first part is to show how "‘new"’ access points react to flooding attacks and what mechanisms are used to protect them. The second part implements an attack using an anomaly of some access points that are discovered in the first part. And the last chapter deals with some information about using an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to protect the devices against such attacks.
In this thesis we apply powerful mathematical tools such as interval arithmetic for applications in computational geometry, visualization and computer graphics, leading to robust, general and efficient algorithms. We present a completely novel approach for computing the arrangement of arbitrary implicit planar curves and perform ray casting of arbitrary implicit functions by jointly achieving, for the first time, robustness, efficiency and flexibility. Indeed we are able to render even the most difficult implicits in real-time with guaranteed topology and at high resolution. We use subdivision and interval arithmetic as key-ingredients to guarantee robustness. The presented framework is also well-suited for applications to large and unstructured data sets due to the inherent adaptivity of the techniques that are used. We also approach the topic of tensors by collaborating with mechanical engineers on comparative tensor visualization and provide them with helpful visualization paradigms to interpret the data.
Modelling languages are important in the process of software development. The suitability of a modelling language for a project depends on its applicability to the target domain. Here, domain-specific languages have an advantage over more general modelling languages. On the other hand, modelling languages like the Unified Modeling Language can be used in a wide range of domains, which supports the reuse of development knowledge between projects. This thesis treats the syntactical and semantical harmonisation of modelling languages and their combined use, and the handling of complexity of modelling languages by providing language subsets - called language profiles - with tailor-made formal semantics definitions, generated by a profile tool. We focus on the widely-used modelling languages SDL and UML, and formal semantics definitions specified using Abstract State Machines.