We present an approach to systematically describing case-based reasoning systems bydifferent kinds of criteria. One main requirement was the practical relevance of these criteria and their usability for real-life applications. We report on the results we achieved from a case study carried out in the INRECA1 Esprit project.
Der Trend zu einer immer stärkeren Kopplung von Systemen bei gleichzeitiger Dezentralisierung durch Vernetzung hat dazu geführt, daß Computernutzern auf Wunsch enorme Datenmengen zur Verfügung stehen, die sich einer sinnvollen Bearbeitung durch den Nutzer allein völlig entziehen. Unterschiedliche Repräsentationsformalismen für Informationen, Mehrdeutigkeiten, Redundanz sowie eingeschränkte Verfügbarkeit sowohl von Informationen als auch von Rechenleistung machen konventionelle Suchverfahren unanwendbar. Stattdessen werden Suchverfahren und Programme benötigt, die sich intelligent an unterschiedliche Formalismen anpassen, ihre Handlungen ständig evaluieren und fähig sind, ihre Benutzer individuell zu unterstützen. Schlagwörter wie Knowbots, Search-Engines oder Data-Miningsind deshalb zur Zeit in aller Munde. Ein umfassendes Buch, das die hinter diesen und ähnlichen Schlagwörtern verborgenen Ideen und Konzepte präsentiert, existiert jedoch zur Zeit noch nicht. Dies war für uns die Motivation, das Thema "Intelligente Suche im Internet mit Lernenden Systemen" in einem Seminar zu behandeln. Wir haben damit ein Forschungsgebiet aufgegriffen, das sowohl für alle am LSA beteiligten Gruppen von Interesse ist, aber darüber hinaus aktuell von vielen Seiten aufmerksam beobachtet wird. Daher haben wir uns entschlossen, die Ausarbeitungen, die im Rahmen dieses Seminars von den TeilmehmerInnen erstellt wurden, durch den vorliegenden Bericht einer breiteren Öffentlichkeit zugänglich zu machen.
This paper addresses the role of abstraction in case-based reasoning. We develop a general framework for reusing cases at several levels of abstraction, which is particularly suited for describing and analyzing existing and designing new approaches of this kind. We show that in synthetic tasks (e.g. configuration, design, and planning), abstraction can be successfully used to improve the efficiency of similarity assessment, retrieval, and adaptation. Furthermore, a case-based planning system, called Paris, is described and analyzed in detail using this framework. An empirical study done with Paris demonstrates significant advantages concerning retrieval and adaptation efficiency as well as flexibility of adaptation. Finally, we show how other approaches from the literature can be classified according to the developed framework.
This paper is to present a new algorithm, called KNNcost, for learning feature weights for CBR systems used for classification. Unlike algorithms known so far, KNNcost considers the profits of a correct and the cost of a wrong decision. The need for this algorithm is motivated from two real-world applications, where cost and profits of decisions play a major role. We introduce a representation of accuracy, cost and profits of decisions and define the decision cost of a classification system. To compare accuracy optimization with cost optimization, we tested KNNacc against KNNcost. The first one optimizes classification accuracy with a conjugate gradient algorithm. The second one optimizes the decision cost of the CBR system, respecting cost and profits of the classifications. We present experiments with these two algorithms in a real application to demonstrate the usefulness of our approach.
Paris (Plan Abstraction and Refinement in an Integrated System) [4, 2] is a domain independent case-based planning system which allows the flexible reuse of planning cases by abstraction and refinement. This approach is mainly inspired by the observation that reuse of plans must not be restricted to a single description level. In domains with a high variation in the problems, the reuse of past solutions must be achieved at various levels of abstraction.
When problems are solved through reasoning from cases, the primary kind of knowledge is contained in the specific cases which are stored in the case base. However, in many situations additional background-knowledge is required to cope with the requirements of an application. We describe an approach to integrate such general knowledge into the reasoning process in a way that it complements the knowledge contained in the cases. This general knowledge itself is not sufficient to perform any kind of model-based problem solving, but it is required to interpret the available cases appropriately. Background knowledge is expressed by two different kinds of rules that both must be formalized by the knowledge engineer: Completion rules describe how to infer additional features out of known features of an old case or the current query case. Adaptation rules describe how an old case can be adapted to fit the current query. This paper shows how these kinds of rules can be integrated into an object-oriented case representation.
In this report we give an overview of the development of our new Waldmeisterprover for equational theories. We elaborate a systematic stepwise design process, startingwith the inference system for unfailing Knuth - Bendix completion and ending up with animplementation which avoids the main diseases today's provers suffer from: overindulgencein time and space.Our design process is based on a logical three - level system model consisting of basicoperations for inference step execution, aggregated inference machine, and overall controlstrategy. Careful analysis of the inference system for unfailing completion has revealed thecrucial points responsible for time and space consumption. For the low level of our model,we introduce specialized data structures and algorithms speeding up the running system andcutting it down in size - both by one order of magnitude compared with standard techniques.Flexible control of the mid - level aggregation inside the resulting prover is made possible by acorresponding set of parameters. Experimental analysis shows that this flexibility is a pointof high importance. We go on with some implementation guidelines we have found valuablein the field of deduction.The resulting new prover shows that our design approach is promising. We compare oursystem's throughput with that of an established system and finally demonstrate how twovery hard problems could be solved by Waldmeister.