## Fachbereich Informatik

We study high dimensional integration in the quantum model of computation. We develop quantum algorithms for integration of functions from Sobolev classes \(W^r_p [0,1]^d\) and analyze their convergence rates. We also prove lower bounds which show that the proposed algorithms are, in many cases, optimal within the setting of quantum computing. This extends recent results of Novak on integration of functions from Hölder classes.

In this paper, the complexity of full solution of Fredholm integral equations of the second kind with data from the Sobolev class \(W^r_2\) is studied. The exact order of information complexity is derived. The lower bound is proved using a Gelfand number technique. The upper bound is shown by providing a concrete algorithm of optimal order, based on a specific hyperbolic cross approximation of the kernel function. Numerical experiments are included, comparing the optimal algorithm with the standard Galerkin method.

We survey old and new results about optimal algorithms for summation of finite sequences and for integration of functions from Hölder or Sobolev spaces. First we discuss optimal deterministic and randornized algorithms. Then we add a new aspect, which has not been covered before on conferences
about (quasi-) Monte Carlo methods: quantum computation. We give a short introduction into this setting and present recent results of the authors on optimal quantum algorithms for summation and integration. We discuss comparisons between the three settings. The most interesting case for Monte
Carlo and quantum integration is that of moderate smoothness \(k\) and large dimension \(d\) which, in fact, occurs in a number of important applied problems. In that case the deterministic exponent is negligible, so the \(n^{-1/2}\) Monte Carlo and the \(n^{-1}\) quantum speedup essentially constitute the entire convergence rate.

We study the global solution of Fredholm integral equations of the second kind by the help of Monte Carlo methods. Global solution means that we seek to approximate the full solution function. This is opposed to the usual applications of Monte Carlo, were one only wants to approximate a functional of the solution. In recent years several researchers developed Monte Carlo methods also for the global problem. In this paper we present a new Monte Carlo algorithm for the global solution of integral equations. We use multiwavelet expansions to approximate the solution. We study the behaviour of variance on increasing levels, and based on this, develop a new variance reduction technique. For classes of smooth kernels and right hand sides we determine the convergence rate of this algorithm and show that it is higher
than those of previously developed algorithms for the global problem. Moreover, an information-based complexity analysis shows that our algorithm is optimal among all stochastic algorithms of the same computational
cost and that no deterministic algorithm of the same cost can reach its convergence rate.

A new variance reduction technique for the Monte Carlo solution of integral
equations is introduced. It is based on separation of the main part. A neighboring equation with exactly known solution is constructed by the help of a deterministic Galerkin scheme. The variance of the method is analyzed, and an application to the radiosity equation of computer graphics, together with numerical test results is given.

Approximation properties of the underlying estimator are used to improve the efficiency of the method of dependent tests. A multilevel approximation procedure is developed such that in each level the number of samples is balanced with the level-dependent variance, resulting in a considerable reduction of the overall computational cost. The new technique is applied to the Monte Carlo estimation of integrals depending on a parameter.

The radiance equation, which describes the global illumination problem in computer graphics, is a high dimensional integral equation. Estimates of the solution are usually computed on the basis of Monte Carlo methods. In this paper we propose and investigate quasi-Monte Carlo methods, which means that we replace (pseudo-) random samples by low discrepancy sequences, yielding deterministic algorithms. We carry out a comparative numerical study between Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods. Our results show that quasi-Monte Carlo converges considerably faster.

Monte Carlo integration is often used for antialiasing in rendering processes.
Due to low sampling rates only expected error estimates can be stated, and the variance can be high. In this article quasi-Monte Carlo methods are presented, achieving a guaranteed upper error bound and a convergence rate essentially as fast as usual Monte Carlo.