We describe a hybrid architecture supporting planning for machining workpieces. The architecture is built around CAPlan, a partial-order nonlinear planner that represents the plan already generated and allows external control decision made by special purpose programs or by the user. To make planning more efficient, the domain is hierarchically modelled. Based on this hierarchical representation, a case-based control component has been realized that allows incremental acquisition of control knowledge by storing solved problems and reusing them in similar situations.
Fallbasiertes Schliessen ist ein derzeit viel diskutierter Problemlösesansatz. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über den aktuellen Stand der Forschung auf diesem Gebiet, insbesondere im Hinblick auf die Entwicklung von Expertensystemen (einen ersten Schritt in diese Richtung stellte bereits der Beitrag von Bartsch-Spörl, [BS87] dar). Dazu stellen wir die dem fallbasierten Schliessen zugrundeliegenden Mechanismen vor. Ergänzt wird dies durch den Vergleich mit alternativen Verfahren wie z.B. regelbasiertes, analoges und induktives Schliessen sowie eine ausführliche Literaturübersicht.
Ein fundamentaler Schritt des fallbasierten Schliessens (FBS) ist das Retrieval einer handhabbaren Menge von Fällen aus einer Fallbasis, die als Grundlage für die weiteren Schritte des FBS, wie die Modifikation und Übertragung bekannter Lösungen auf einen gegebenen Problemfall, dienen.
Eine Fallbasis mit bereits gelösten Diagnoseproblemen Wissen über die Struktur der Maschine Wissen über die Funktion der einzelnen Bauteile (konkret und abstrakt) Die hier vorgestellte Komponente setzt dabei auf die im Rahmen des Moltke-Projektes entwickelten Systeme Patdex[Wes91] (fallbasierte Diagnose) und iMake [Sch92] bzw. Make [Reh91] (modellbasierte Generierung von Moltke- Wissensbasen) auf.
Contrary to symbolic learning approaches, that represent a learned concept explicitly, case-based approaches describe concepts implicitly by a pair (CB; sim), i.e. by a measure of similarity sim and a set CB of cases. This poses the question if there are any differences concerning the learning power of the two approaches. In this article we will study the relationship between the case base, the measure of similarity, and the target concept of the learning process. To do so, we transform a simple symbolic learning algorithm (the version space algorithm) into an equivalent case-based variant. The achieved results strengthen the hypothesis of the equivalence of the learning power of symbolic and casebased methods and show the interdependency between the measure used by a case-based algorithm and the target concept.
When problems are solved through reasoning from cases, the primary kind of knowledge is contained in the specific cases which are stored in the case base. However, in many situations additional background-knowledge is required to cope with the requirements of an application. We describe an approach to integrate such general knowledge into the reasoning process in a way that it complements the knowledge contained in the cases. This general knowledge itself is not sufficient to perform any kind of model-based problem solving, but it is required to interpret the available cases appropriately. Background knowledge is expressed by two different kinds of rules that both must be formalized by the knowledge engineer: Completion rules describe how to infer additional features out of known features of an old case or the current query case. Adaptation rules describe how an old case can be adapted to fit the current query. This paper shows how these kinds of rules can be integrated into an object-oriented case representation.
While symbolic learning approaches encode the knowledge provided by the presentation of the cases explicitly into a symbolic representation of the concept, e.g. formulas, rules, or decision trees, case-based approaches describe learned concepts implicitly by a pair (CB; d), i.e. by a set CB of cases and a distance measure d. Given the same information, symbolic as well as the case-based approach compute a classification when a new case is presented. This poses the question if there are any differences concerning the learning power of the two approaches. In this work we will study the relationship between the case base, the measure of distance, and the target concept of the learning process. To do so, we transform a simple symbolic learning algorithm (the version space algorithm) into an equivalent case-based variant. The achieved results strengthen the conjecture of the equivalence of the learning power of symbolic and casebased methods and show the interdependency between the measure used by a case-based algorithm and the target concept.
This paper motivates the necessity for support for negotiation during Sales Support on the Internet within Case-Based Reasoning solutions. Different negotiation approaches are discussed and a general model of the sales process is presented. Further, the tradition al CBR-cycle is modified in such a way that iterative retrieval during a CBR consulting session is covered by the new model. Several gen eral characteristics of negotiation are described and a case study is shown where preliminary approaches are used to negotiate with a cu stomer about his demands and available products in a 'CBR-based' Electronic Commerce solution.