In many robotic applications, the teaching of points in space is necessary to register the robot coordinate system with the one of the application. Robot-human interaction is awkward and dangerous for the human because of the possibly large size and power of the robot, so robot movements must be predictable and natural. We present a novel hybrid control algorithm which provides the needed precision in small scale movements while allowing for fast and intuitive large scale translations.
This paper deals with the handling of deformable linear objects (DLOs), such as hoses, wires, or leaf springs. It investigates usable features for the vision-based detection of a changing contact situation between a DLO and a rigid polyhedral obstacle and a classification of such contact state transitions. The result is a complete classification of contact state transitions and of the most significant features for each class. This knowledge enables reliable detection of changes in the DLO contact situation, facilitating implementation of sensor-based manipulation skills for all possible contact changes.
Objective: In some surgical specialties, e.g. orthopedics, robots are already used in the operating room for bony milling work. Oto- and otoneurosurgery may also greatly benefit by robotic enhanced precision. Study Design: Experimental study on robotic milling on oak wood and human temporal bone specimen. Methods: A standard industrial robot with a 6 degrees-of-freedom serial kinematics was used with force feedback to proportionally control the robot speed. Different milling modes and characteristic path parameters were evaluated to generate milling paths based on CAD geometry data of a cochlear implant and an implantable hearing system. Results: The best suited strategy proofed to be the spiral horizontal milling mode with the burr held perpendicularly to the temporal bone surface. In order to avoid high grooves, the distance in between paths should equal half the radius of the cutting burr head. Due to the vibration of the robot’s own motors, a rather high oscillation of the standard deviation of forces was encountered. This oscillation dropped drastically to nearly 0 N, when the burr head reached contact with the dura mater due to its damping characteristics. The cutting burr could be moved a long time on the dura without damaging it, because of its rather blunt head. The robot moved the burr very smoothly according to the encountered resistances. Conclusion: This is the first development of an functioning robotic milling procedure for otoneurosurgery with force-based speed control. It is planned to implement ultrasound-based local navigation and to perform robotic mastoidectomy.
This paper describes motion primitives which solve some common recurrent problems encountered when manipulating deformable linear objects. As one example for the usefulness of these manipulations skills, the mounting of a leaf spring is presented here.
This paper analyzes the problem of sensor-based colli-sion detection for an industrial robotic manipulator. A method to perform collision tests based on images taken from several stationary cameras in the work cell is pre-sented. The collision test works entirely based on the im-ages, and does not construct a representation of the Carte-sian space. It is shown how to perform a collision test for all possible robot configurations using only a single set of images taken simultaneously.
While handling deformable linear objects (DLOs), such as hoses, wires or leaf springs, with an industrial robot at high speed, unintended and undesired oscillations that delay further operations may occur. This paper analyzes oscillations based on a simple model with one degree of freedom (DOF) and presents a method for active open-loop damping. Different ways to interpret an oscillating DLO as a system with 1 DOF lead to translational and rotational adjustment motions. Both were implemented as a manipulation skill with a sepa-rate program that can be executed immediately after any robot motion. We showed how these manipulation skills can generate the needed adjustment motions automatically based on the readings of a wrist-mounted force/torque sensor. Experiments demonstrated the effectiveness under various conditions.
In this paper we present a method and system for robot programming using virtual reality techniques. The proposed method allows intuitive teaching of a manipulation task with haptic feedback in a graphical simulation system. Based on earlier work, our system allows even an operator who lacks specialized knowledge of robotics to automatically generate a robust sensor-based robot program that is ready to execute on different robots, merely by demonstrating the task in virtual reality.
It is difficult for robots to handle a vibrating deformable object. Even for human beings it is a high-risk operation to, for example, insert a vibrating linear object into a small hole. However, fast manipulation using a robot arm is not just a dream; it may be achieved if some important features of the vibration are detected online. In this paper, we present an approach for fast manipulation using a force/torque sensor mounted on the robot's wrist. Template matching method is employed to recognize the vibrational phase of the deformable objects. Therefore, a fast manipulation can be performed with a high success rate, even if there is acute vibration. Experiments inserting a deformable object into a hole are conducted to test the presented method. Results demonstrate that the presented sensor-based online fast manipulation is feasible.
The paper focuses on the problem of point-to-point trajectory planning for flexible redundant robot manipulators (FRM) in joint space. Compared with irredundant flexible manipulators, a FRM possesses additional possibilities during point-to-point trajectory planning due to its kinematics redundancy. A trajectory planning method to minimize vibration and/or executing time of a point-to-point motion is presented for FRM based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Kinematics redundancy is integrated into the presented method as planning variables. Quadrinomial and quintic polynomial are used to describe the segments that connect the initial, intermediate, and final points in joint space. The trajectory planning of FRM is formulated as a problem of optimization with constraints. A planar FRM with three flexible links is used in simulation. Case studies show that the method is applicable.
We present a system concept allowing humans to work safely in the same environment as a robot manipulator. Several cameras survey the common workspace. A look-up-table-based fusion algorithm is used to back-project directly from the image spaces of the cameras to the manipulator?s con-figuration space. In the look-up-tables both, the camera calibration and the robot geometry are implicitly encoded. For experiments, a conven-tional 6 axis industrial manipulator is used. The work space is surveyed by four grayscale cameras. Due to the limits of present robot controllers, the computationally expensive parts of the system are executed on a server PC that communicates with the robot controller via Ethernet.