## Fachbereich Informatik

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The Internet has fallen prey to its most successful service, the World-Wide Web. The networksdo not keep up with the demands incurred by the huge amount of Web surfers. Thus, it takeslonger and longer to obtain the information one wants to access via the World-Wide Web.Many solutions to the problem of network congestion have been developed in distributed sys-tems research in general and distributed file and database systems in particular. The introduc-tion of caching and replication strategies has proven to help in many situations and thereforethese techniques are also applied to the WWW. Although most problems and associated solu-tions are known, some circumstances are different with the Web, forcing the adaptation ofknown strategies. This paper gives an overview about these differences and about currentlydeployed, developed, and evaluated solutions.

We present a distributed system, Dott, for approximately solving the Trav-eling Salesman Problem (TSP) based on the Teamwork method. So-calledexperts and specialists work independently and in parallel for given time pe-riods. For TSP, specialists are tour construction algorithms and experts usemodified genetic algorithms in which after each application of a genetic operatorthe resulting tour is locally optimized before it is added to the population. Aftera given time period the work of each expert and specialist is judged by a referee.A new start population, including selected individuals from each expert and spe-cialist, is generated by the supervisor, based on the judgments of the referees.Our system is able to find better tours than each of the experts or specialistsworking alone. Also results comparable to those of single runs can be found muchfaster by a team.

The intuitionistic calculus mj for sequents, in which no other logical symbols than those for implication and universal quantification occur, is introduced and analysed. It allows a simple backward application, called mj-reduction here, for searching for derivation trees. Terms needed in mj-reduction can be found with the unification algorithm. mj-Reduction with unification can be seen as a natural extension of SLD-resolution. mj-Derivability of the sequents considered here coincides with derivability in Johansson's minimal intuitionistic calculus LHM in [6]. Intuitionistic derivability of formulae with negation and classical derivability of formulae with all usual logical symbols can be expressed with mj-derivability and hence be verified by mj-reduction. mj-Derivations can be easily translated into LJ-derivations without
"Schnitt", or into NJ-derivations in a slightly sharpened form of Prawitz' normal form. In the first three sections, the systematic use of mj-reduction for proving in predicate logic is emphasized. Although the fourth section, the last and largest, is exclusively devoted to the mathematical analysis of the calculus mj, the first three sections may be of interest to a wider readership, including readers looking for applications of symbolic logic. Unfortunately, the mathematical analysis of the calculus mj, as the study of Gentzen's calculi, demands a large amount of technical work that obscures the natural unfolding of the argumentation. To alleviate this, definitions and theorems are completely embedded in the text to provide a fluent and balanced mathematical discourse: new concepts are indicated with bold-face, proofs of assertions are outlined, or omitted when it is assumed that the reader can provide them.

We describe a platform for the portable and secure execution of mobile agents writtenin various interpreted languages on top of a common run-time core. Agents may migrate at anypoint in their execution, fully preserving their state, and may exchange messages with otheragents. One system may contain many virtual places, each establishing a domain of logicallyrelated services under a common security policy governing all agents at this place. Agents areequipped with allowances limiting their resource accesses, both globally per agent lifetime andlocally per place. We discuss aspects of this architecture and report about ongoing work.

Software Products As Objects
(1997)

This paper describes our experiences in modeling entire software products (trees of software files) as objects. Container pnodes (product nodes) have user-defined Internetunique names, data types, and methods (operations). Pnodes can contain arbitrary collections of software files that represent programs, libraries, documents, or other software products. Pnodes can contain multiple software products, so that header files, libraries, and program products may all be stored within one pnode. Pnodes can contain views that list other pnodes in order to form large conceptual structures of pnodes. Typical pnode -object methods include: fetching and storing into version controlled repositories; dynamic analysis of pnode contents to generate makefiles of arbitrary complexity; local automated build operations; Internet-scalable distributed repository synchroni- zations; Internet-scalable, multi-platform, distributed build operations; extraction and generation of online API documen- tation, spell checking of document pnodes, and so on. Since methods are user-defined, they can be arbitrarily complex. Modelling software products as objects provides a large amount of effort leverage, since one person can define the methods and many people can use them in extensively automated ways.

Techniques for modular software design are presented applying software agents. The conceptual designs are domain independent and make use of specificdomain aspects applying Multiagent AI. The stages of conceptualization, design and implementation are defined by new techniques coordinated by objects. Software systemsare designed by knowledge acquisition, specification, and multiagent implementations.

Like other industries, the aircraft industry is under high pressure to meet drastically increased customer goals for market price and flexibility. This while at the same time share holders request for short term profit guarantees. Daimler-Benz Aerospace Airbus has met this challenge using business process reengineering methods which led to total company restructuring from functional orientation to customer and product orientation. This paper will show how business process modelling techniques have been applied. Especially concurrent engineering methods are used to integrate the various disciplines involved from market analysts over design, commercial to industrialization staff.

This paper discusses the benefits and drawbacks of caching and replication strategies in the WWW with respect to the Internet infrastructure. Bandwidth consumption, latency, and overall error rates are considered to be most important from a network point of view. The dependencies of these values with input parameters like degree of replication, document popularity, actual cache hit rates, and error rates are highlighted. In order to determine the influence of different caching and replication strategies on the behavior of a single proxy server with respect to these values, trace-based simulations are used. Since the overall effects of such strate- gies can hardly be decided with this approach alone, a mathematical model has been developed to deal with their influence on the network as a whole. Together, this two-tiered approach permits us to propose quantita- tive assessments on the influence different caching and replication proposals (are going to) have on the Inter- net infrastructure.

The problem of constructing a geometric model of an existing object from a set of boundary points arises in many areas of industry. In this paper we present a new solution to this problem which is an extension of Boissonnat's method [2]. Our approach uses the well known Delaunay triangulation of the data points as an intermediate step. Starting with this structure, we eliminate tetrahedra until we get an appropriate approximation of the desired shape. The method proposed in this paper is capable of reconstructing objects with arbitrary genus and can cope with different point densities in different regions of the object. The
problems which arise during the elimination process, i.e. which tetrahedra can be eliminated, which order has to be used to control the process and finally, how to stop the elimination procedure at the right time, are discussed in detail. Several examples are given to show the validity of the method.