In system theory, state is a key concept. Here, the word state refers to condition, as in the example Since he went into the hospital, his state of health worsened daily. This colloquial meaning was the starting point for defining the concept of state in system theory. System theory describes the relationship between input X and output Y, that is, between influence and reaction. In system theory, a system is something that shows an observable behavior that may be influenced. Therefore, apart from the system, there must be something else influencing and observing the reaction of the system. This is called the environment of the system.
Programs are linguistic structures which contain identifications of individuals: memory locations, data types, classes, objects, relations, functions etc. must be identified selectively or definingly. The first part of the essay which deals with identification by showing and designating is rather short, whereas the remaining part dealing with paraphrasing is rather long. The reason is that for an identification by showing or designating no linguistic compositions are needed, in contrast to the case of identification by paraphrasing. The different types of functional paraphrasing are covered here in great detail because the concept of functional paraphrasing is the foundation of functional programming. The author had to decide whether to cover this subject here or in his essay Purpose versus Form of Programs where the concept of functional programming is presented. Finally, the author came to the conclusion that this essay on identification is the more appropriate place.