This paper presents the systematic synthesis of a fairly complex digitalcircuit and its CPLD implementation as an assemblage of communicatingasynchronous sequential circuits. The example, a VMEbus controller, waschosen because it has to control concurrent processes and to arbitrateconflicting requests.
Programs are linguistic structures which contain identifications of individuals: memory locations, data types, classes, objects, relations, functions etc. must be identified selectively or definingly. The first part of the essay which deals with identification by showing and designating is rather short, whereas the remaining part dealing with paraphrasing is rather long. The reason is that for an identification by showing or designating no linguistic compositions are needed, in contrast to the case of identification by paraphrasing. The different types of functional paraphrasing are covered here in great detail because the concept of functional paraphrasing is the foundation of functional programming. The author had to decide whether to cover this subject here or in his essay Purpose versus Form of Programs where the concept of functional programming is presented. Finally, the author came to the conclusion that this essay on identification is the more appropriate place.
In system theory, state is a key concept. Here, the word state refers to condition, as in the example Since he went into the hospital, his state of health worsened daily. This colloquial meaning was the starting point for defining the concept of state in system theory. System theory describes the relationship between input X and output Y, that is, between influence and reaction. In system theory, a system is something that shows an observable behavior that may be influenced. Therefore, apart from the system, there must be something else influencing and observing the reaction of the system. This is called the environment of the system.
This paper presents a completely systematic design procedure for asynchronous controllers.The initial step is the construction of a signal transition graph (STG, an interpreted Petri net) ofthe dialog between data path and controller: a formal representation without reference to timeor internal states. To implement concurrently operating control structures, and also to reducedesign effort and circuit cost, this STG can be decomposed into overlapping subnets. A univer-sal initial solution is then obtained by algorithmically constructing a primitive flow table fromeach component net. This step links the procedure to classical asynchronous design, in particu-lar to its proven optimization methods, without restricting the set of solutions. In contrast toother approaches, there is no need to extend the original STG intuitively.
An interrupter for use in a daisy-chained VME bus interrupt system has beendesigned and implemented as an asynchronous sequential circuit. The concur-rency of the processes posed a design problem that was solved by means of asystematic design procedure that uses Petri nets for specifying system and in-terrupter behaviour, and for deriving a primitive flow table. Classical designand additional measures to cope with non-fundamental mode operation yieldeda coded state-machine representation. This was implemented on a GAL 22V10,chosen for its hazard-preventing structure and for rapid prototyping in studentlaboratories.
At present the standardization of third generation (3G) mobile radio systems is the subject of worldwide research activities. These systems will cope with the market demand for high data rate services and the system requirement for exibility concerning the offered services and the transmission qualities. However, there will be de ciencies with respect to high capacity, if 3G mobile radio systems exclusively use single antennas. Very promising technique developed for increasing the capacity of 3G mobile radio systems the application is adaptive antennas. In this thesis, the benefits of using adaptive antennas are investigated for 3G mobile radio systems based on Time Division CDMA (TD-CDMA), which forms part of the European 3G mobile radio air interface standard adopted by the ETSI, and is intensively studied within the standardization activities towards a worldwide 3G air interface standard directed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project). One of the most important issues related to adaptive antennas is the analysis of the benefits of using adaptive antennas compared to single antennas. In this thesis, these bene ts are explained theoretically and illustrated by computer simulation results for both data detection, which is performed according to the joint detection principle, and channel estimation, which is applied according to the Steiner estimator, in the TD-CDMA uplink. The theoretical explanations are based on well-known solved mathematical problems. The simulation results illustrating the benefits of adaptive antennas are produced by employing a novel simulation concept, which offers a considerable reduction of the simulation time and complexity, as well as increased exibility concerning the use of different system parameters, compared to the existing simulation concepts for TD-CDMA. Furthermore, three novel techniques are presented which can be used in systems with adaptive antennas for additionally improving the system performance compared to single antennas. These techniques concern the problems of code-channel mismatch, of user separation in the spatial domain, and of intercell interference, which, as it is shown in the thesis, play a critical role on the performance of TD-CDMA with adaptive antennas. Finally, a novel approach for illustrating the performance differences between the uplink and downlink of TD-CDMA based mobile radio systems in a straightforward manner is presented. Since a cellular mobile radio system with adaptive antennas is considered, the ultimate goal is the investigation of the overall system efficiency rather than the efficiency of a single link. In this thesis, the efficiency of TD-CDMA is evaluated through its spectrum efficiency and capacity, which are two closely related performance measures for cellular mobile radio systems. Compared to the use of single antennas, the use of adaptive antennas allows impressive improvements of both spectrum efficiency and capacity. Depending on the mobile radio channel model and the user velocity, improvement factors range from six to 10.7 for the spectrum efficiency, and from 6.7 to 12.6 for the spectrum capacity of TD-CDMA. Thus, adaptive antennas constitute a promising technique for capacity increase of future mobile communications systems.
In this thesis a new family of codes for the use in optical high bit rate transmission systems with a direct sequence code division multiple access scheme component was developed and its performance examined. These codes were then used as orthogonal sequences for the coding of the different wavelength channels in a hybrid OCDMA/WDMA system. The overall performance was finally compared to a pure WDMA system. The common codes known up to date have the problem of needing very long sequence lengths in order to accommodate an adequate number of users. Thus, code sequence lengths of 1000 or more were necessary to reach bit error ratios of with only about 10 simultaneous users. However, these sequence lengths are unacceptable if signals with data rates higher than 100 MBit/s are to be transmitted, not to speak about the number of simultaneous users. Starting from the well known optical orthogonal codes (OOC) and under the assumption of synchronization among the participating transmitters - justified for high bit rate WDM transmission systems -, a new code family called ?modified optical orthogonal codes? (MOOC) was developed by minimizing the crosscorrelation products of each two sequences. By this, the number of simultaneous users could be increased by several orders of magnitude compared to the known codes so far. The obtained code sequences were then introduced in numerical simulations of a 80 GBit/s DWDM transmission system with 8 channels, each carrying a 10 GBit/s payload. Usual DWDM systems are featured by enormous efforts to minimize the spectral spacing between the various wavelength channels. These small spacings in combination with the high bit rates lead to very strict demands on the system components like laser diode, filters, multiplexers etc. Continuous channel monitoring and temperature regulations of sensitive components are inevitable, but often cannot prevent drop downs of the bit error ratio due to aging effects or outer influences like mechanical stress. The obtained results show that - very different to the pure WDM system - by orthogonally coding adjacent wavelength channels with the proposed MOOC, the overall system performance gets widely independent from system parameters like input powers, channel spacings and link lengths. Nonlinear effects like XPM that insert interchannel crosstalk are effectively fought. Furthermore, one can entirely dispense with the bandpass filters, thus simplifying the receiver structure, which is especially interesting for broadcast networks. A DWDM system upgraded with the OCDMA subsystem shows a very robust behavior against a variety of influences.
TD (Time Division)-CDMA is one of the partial standards adopted by 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) for 3rd Generation (3G) mobile radio systems. An important issue when designing 3G mobile radio systems is the efficient use of the available frequency spectrum, that is the achievement of a spectrum efficiency as high as possible. It is well known that the spectrum efficiency can be enhanced by utilizing multi-element antennas instead of single-element antennas at the base station (BS). Concerning the uplink of TD- CDMA, the benefits achievable by multi-element BS antennas have been quantitatively studied to a satisfactory extent. However, corresponding studies for the downlink are still missing. This thesis has the goal to make contributions to fill this lack of information. For near-to-reality directional mobile radio scenarios TD-CDMA downlink utilizing multi-element antennas at the BS are investigated both on the system level and on the link level. The system level investigations show how the carrier-to-interference ratio can be improved by applying such antennas. As the result of the link level investigations, which rely on the detection scheme Joint Detection (JD), the improvement of the bit er- ror rate by utilizing multi-element antennas at the BS can be quantified. Concerning the link level of TD-CDMA, a number of improvements are proposed which allow considerable performance enhancement of TD-CDMA downlink in connection with multi-element BS antennas. These improvements include * the concept of partial joint detection (PJD), in which at each mobile station (MS) only a subset of the arriving CDMA signals including those being of interest to this MS are jointly detected, * a blind channel estimation algorithm, * CDMA code pooling, that is assigning more than one CDMA code to certain con- nections in order to offer these users higher data rates, * maximizing the Shannon transmission capacity by an interleaving concept termed CDMA code interleaving and by advantageously selecting the assignment of CDMA codes to mobile radio channels, * specific power control schemes, which tackle the problem of different transmission qualities of the CDMA codes. As a comprehensive illustration of the advantages achievable by multi-element BS anten- nas in the TD-CDMA downlink, quantitative results concerning the spectrum efficiency for different numbers of antenna elements at the BS conclude the thesis.
It is well known that the performance of mobile radio systems can be significantly enhanced by the application of adaptive antennas which consist of multi-element antenna arrays plus signal processing circuitry. In the thesis the utilization of such antennas as receive antennas in the uplink of mobile radio air interfaces of the type TD-CDMA is studied. Especially, the incorporation of covariance matrices of the received interference signals into the signal processing algorithms is investigated with a view to improve the system performance as compared to state of the art adaptive antenna technology. These covariance matrices implicitly contain information on the directions of incidence of the interference signals, and this information may be exploited to reduce the effective interference power when processing the signals received by the array elements. As a basis for the investigations, first directional models of the mobile radio channels and of the interference impinging at the receiver are developed, which can be implemented on the computer at low cost. These channel models cover both outdoor and indoor environments. They are partly based on measured channel impulse responses and, therefore, allow a description of the mobile radio channels which comes sufficiently close to reality. Concerning the interference models, two cases are considered. In the one case, the interference signals arriving from different directions are correlated, and in the other case these signals are uncorrelated. After a visualization of the potential of adaptive receive antennas, data detection and channel estimation schemes for the TD-CDMA uplink are presented, which rely on such antennas under the consideration of interference covariance matrices. Of special interest is the detection scheme MSJD (Multi Step Joint Detection), which is a novel iterative approach to multi-user detection. Concerning channel estimation, the incorporation of the knowledge of the interference covariance matrix and of the correlation matrix of the channel impulse responses is enabled by an MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error) based channel estimator. The presented signal processing concepts using covariance matrices for channel estimation and data detection are merged in order to form entire receiver structures. Important tasks to be fulfilled in such receivers are the estimation of the interference covariance matrices and the reconstruction of the received desired signals. These reconstructions are required when applying MSJD in data detection. The considered receiver structures are implemented on the computer in order to enable system simulations. The obtained simulation results show that the developed schemes are very promising in cases, where the impinging interference is highly directional, whereas in cases with the interference directions being more homogeneously distributed over the azimuth the consideration of the interference covariance matrices is of only limited benefit. The thesis can serve as a basis for practical system implementations.