An interrupter for use in a daisy-chained VME bus interrupt system has beendesigned and implemented as an asynchronous sequential circuit. The concur-rency of the processes posed a design problem that was solved by means of asystematic design procedure that uses Petri nets for specifying system and in-terrupter behaviour, and for deriving a primitive flow table. Classical designand additional measures to cope with non-fundamental mode operation yieldeda coded state-machine representation. This was implemented on a GAL 22V10,chosen for its hazard-preventing structure and for rapid prototyping in studentlaboratories.
Wireless sensor networks are the driving force behind many popular and interdisciplinary research areas, such as environmental monitoring, building automation, healthcare and assisted living applications. Requirements like compactness, high integration of sensors, flexibility, and power efficiency are often very different and cannot be fulfilled by state-of-the-art node platforms at once. In this paper, we present and analyze AmICA: a flexible, compact, easy-to-program, and low-power node platform. Developed from scratch and including a node, a basic communication protocol, and a debugging toolkit, it assists in an user-friendly rapid application development. The general purpose nature of AmICA was evaluated in two practical applications with diametric requirements. Our analysis shows that AmICA nodes are 67% smaller than BTnodes, have five times more sensors than Mica2Dot and consume 72% less energy than the state-of-the-art TelosB mote in sleep mode.
Programs are linguistic structures which contain identifications of individuals: memory locations, data types, classes, objects, relations, functions etc. must be identified selectively or definingly. The first part of the essay which deals with identification by showing and designating is rather short, whereas the remaining part dealing with paraphrasing is rather long. The reason is that for an identification by showing or designating no linguistic compositions are needed, in contrast to the case of identification by paraphrasing. The different types of functional paraphrasing are covered here in great detail because the concept of functional paraphrasing is the foundation of functional programming. The author had to decide whether to cover this subject here or in his essay Purpose versus Form of Programs where the concept of functional programming is presented. Finally, the author came to the conclusion that this essay on identification is the more appropriate place.
In system theory, state is a key concept. Here, the word state refers to condition, as in the example Since he went into the hospital, his state of health worsened daily. This colloquial meaning was the starting point for defining the concept of state in system theory. System theory describes the relationship between input X and output Y, that is, between influence and reaction. In system theory, a system is something that shows an observable behavior that may be influenced. Therefore, apart from the system, there must be something else influencing and observing the reaction of the system. This is called the environment of the system.
It is well known that the performance of mobile radio systems can be significantly enhanced by the application of adaptive antennas which consist of multi-element antenna arrays plus signal processing circuitry. In the thesis the utilization of such antennas as receive antennas in the uplink of mobile radio air interfaces of the type TD-CDMA is studied. Especially, the incorporation of covariance matrices of the received interference signals into the signal processing algorithms is investigated with a view to improve the system performance as compared to state of the art adaptive antenna technology. These covariance matrices implicitly contain information on the directions of incidence of the interference signals, and this information may be exploited to reduce the effective interference power when processing the signals received by the array elements. As a basis for the investigations, first directional models of the mobile radio channels and of the interference impinging at the receiver are developed, which can be implemented on the computer at low cost. These channel models cover both outdoor and indoor environments. They are partly based on measured channel impulse responses and, therefore, allow a description of the mobile radio channels which comes sufficiently close to reality. Concerning the interference models, two cases are considered. In the one case, the interference signals arriving from different directions are correlated, and in the other case these signals are uncorrelated. After a visualization of the potential of adaptive receive antennas, data detection and channel estimation schemes for the TD-CDMA uplink are presented, which rely on such antennas under the consideration of interference covariance matrices. Of special interest is the detection scheme MSJD (Multi Step Joint Detection), which is a novel iterative approach to multi-user detection. Concerning channel estimation, the incorporation of the knowledge of the interference covariance matrix and of the correlation matrix of the channel impulse responses is enabled by an MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error) based channel estimator. The presented signal processing concepts using covariance matrices for channel estimation and data detection are merged in order to form entire receiver structures. Important tasks to be fulfilled in such receivers are the estimation of the interference covariance matrices and the reconstruction of the received desired signals. These reconstructions are required when applying MSJD in data detection. The considered receiver structures are implemented on the computer in order to enable system simulations. The obtained simulation results show that the developed schemes are very promising in cases, where the impinging interference is highly directional, whereas in cases with the interference directions being more homogeneously distributed over the azimuth the consideration of the interference covariance matrices is of only limited benefit. The thesis can serve as a basis for practical system implementations.
The work presented in this thesis discusses the thermal and power management of multi-core processors (MCPs) with both two dimensional (2D) package and there dimensional (3D) package chips. The power and thermal management/balancing is of increasing concern and is a technological challenge to the MCP development and will be a main performance bottleneck for the development of MCPs. This thesis develops optimal thermal and power management policies for MCPs. The system thermal behavior for both 2D package and 3D package chips is analyzed and mathematical models are developed. Thereafter, the optimal thermal and power management methods are introduced.
Nowadays, the chips are generally packed in 2D technique, which means that there is only one layer of dies in the chip. The chip thermal behavior can be described by a 3D heat conduction partial differential equation (PDE). As the target is to balance the thermal behavior and power consumption among the cores, a group of one dimensional (1D) PDEs, which is derived from the developed 3D PDE heat conduction equation, is proposed to describe the thermal behavior of each core. Therefore, the thermal behavior of the MCP is described by a group of 1D PDEs. An optimal controller is designed to manage the power consumption and balance the temperature among the cores based on the proposed 1D model.
3D package is an advanced package technology, which contains at least 2 layers of dies stacked in one chip. Different from 2D package, the cooling system should be installed among the layers to reduce the internal temperature of the chip. In this thesis, the micro-channel liquid cooling system is considered, and the heat transfer character of the micro-channel is analyzed and modeled as an ordinary differential equation (ODE). The dies are discretized to blocks based on the chip layout with each block modeled as a thermal resistance and capacitance (R-C) circuit. Thereafter, the micro-channels are discretized. The thermal behavior of the whole system is modeled as an ODE system. The micro-channel liquid velocity is set according to the workload and the temperature of the dies. Under each velocity, the system can be described as a linear ODE model system and the whole system is a switched linear system. An H-infinity observer is designed to estimate the states. The model predictive control (MPC) method is employed to design the thermal and power management/balancing controller for each submodel.
The models and controllers developed in this thesis are verified by simulation experiments via MATLAB. The IBM cell 8 cores processor and water micro-channel cooling system developed by IBM Research in collaboration with EPFL and ETHZ are employed as the experiment objects.
Hardware prototyping is an essential part in the hardware design flow. Furthermore, hardware prototyping usually relies on system-level design and hardware-in-the-loop simulations in order to develop, test and evaluate intellectual property cores. One common task in this process consist on interfacing cores with different port specifications. Data width conversion is used to overcome this issue. This work presents two open source hardware cores compliant with AXI4-Stream bus protocol, where each core performs upsizing/downsizing data width conversion.
The high demanded data throughput of data communication between units in the system can be covered by short-haul optical communication and high speed serial data communication. In these data communication schemes, the receiver has to extract the corresponding clock from serial data stream by a clock and data recovery circuit (CDR). Data transceiver nodes have their own local reference clocks for their data transmission and data processing units. The reference clocks are normally slightly different even if they are specified to have the same frequency. Therefore, the data communication transceivers always work in a plesiochronous condition, an operation with slightly different reference frequencies. The difference of the data rates is covered by an elastic buffer. In a data readout system in the experiment in particle physics, such as a particle detector, the data of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in all detector nodes are transmitted over the networks. The plesiochronous condition in these networks are non-preferable because it causes the difficulty in the time stamping, which is used to indicate the relative time between events. The separated clock distribution network is normally required to overcome this problem. If the existing data communication networks can support the clock distribution function, the system complexity can be largely reduced. The CDRs on all detector nodes have to operate without a local reference clock and provide the recovered clocks, which have sufficiently good quality, for using as the reference timing for their local data processing units. In this thesis, a low jitter clock and data recovery circuit for large synchronous networks is presented. It possesses a 2-loop topology. They are clock and data recovery loop and clock jitter filter loop. In CDR loop, the CDR with rotational frequency detector is applied to increase its frequency capture range, therefore the operation without local reference clock is possible. Its loop bandwidth can be freely adjusted to meet the specified jitter tolerance. The 1/4-rate time-interleaving architecture is used to reduce the operation frequency and optimize the power consumption. The clock-jitter-filter loop is applied to improve the jitter of the recovered clock. It uses a low jitter LC voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). The loop bandwidth of the clock-jitter-filter is minimized to suppress the jitter of the recovered clock. The 1/4-rate CDR with frequency detector and clock-jitter-filter with LC-VCO were implemented in 0.18µm CMOS Technology. Both circuits occupy an area of 1.61mm2 and consume 170mW from 1.8V supply. The CDR can cover data rate from 1 to 2Gb/s. Its loop bandwidth is configurable from 700kHz to 4MHz. Its jitter tolerance can comply to SONET standard. The clock-jitter-filter has the configurable input/output frequencies from 9.191 to 78.125MHz. Its loop bandwidth is adjustable from 100kHz to 3MHz. The high frequency clock is also available for a serial data transmitter. The CDR with clock-jitter-filter can generate clock with jitter of 4.2ps rms from the incoming serial data with inter-symbol-interference jitter of 150ps peak-to-peak.
Analog sensor electronics requires special care during design in order to increase the quality and precision of the signal, and the life time of the product. Nevertheless, it can experience static deviations due to the manufacturing tolerances, and dynamic deviations due to operating in non-ideal environment. Therefore, the advanced applications such as MEMS technology employs calibration loop to deal with the deviations, but unfortunately, it is considered only in the digital domain, which cannot cope with all the analog deviations such as saturation of the analog signal, etc. On the other hand, rapid-prototyping is essential to decrease the development time, and the cost of the products for small quantities. Recently, evolvable hardware has been developed with the motivation to cope with the mentioned sensor electronic problems. However the industrial specifications and requirements are not considered in the hardware learning loop. Indeed, it minimizes the error between the required output and the real output generated due to given test signal. The aim of this thesis is to synthesize the generic organic-computing sensor electronics and return hardware with predictable behavior for embedded system applications that gains the industrial acceptance; therefore, the hardware topology is constrained to the standard hardware topologies, the hardware standard specifications are included in the optimization, and hierarchical optimization are abstracted from the synthesis tools to evolve first the building blocks, then evolve the abstract level that employs these optimized blocks. On the other hand, measuring some of the industrial specifications needs expensive equipments and some others are time consuming which is not fortunate for embedded system applications. Therefore, the novel approach "mixtrinsic multi-objective optimization" is proposed that simulates/estimates the set of the specifications that is hard to be measured due to the cost or time requirements, while it measures intrinsically the set of the specifications that has high sensitivity to deviations. These approaches succeed to optimize the hardware to meet the industrial specifications with low cost measurement setup which is essential for embedded system applications.