The recently established technologies in the areas of distributed measurement and intelligent
information processing systems, e.g., Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), Ambient
Intelligence/Ambient Assisted Living systems (AmI/AAL), the Internet of Things
(IoT), and Industry 4.0 have increased the demand for the development of intelligent
integrated multi-sensory systems as to serve rapid growing markets [1, 2]. These increase
the significance of complex measurement systems, that incorporate numerous advanced
methodological implementations including electronics circuit, signal processing,
and multi-sensory information fusion. In particular, in multi-sensory cognition applications,
to design such systems, the skill-required tasks, e.g., method selection, parameterization,
model analysis, and processing chain construction are elaborated with immense
effort, which conventionally are done manually by the expert designer. Moreover, the
strong technological competition imposes even more complicated design problems with
multiple constraints, e.g., cost, speed, power consumption,
exibility, and reliability.
Thus, the conventional human expert based design approach may not be able to cope
with the increasing demand in numbers, complexity, and diversity. To alleviate the issue,
the design automation approach has been the topic for numerous research works [3-14]
and has been commercialized to several products [15-18]. Additionally, the dynamic
adaptation of intelligent multi-sensor systems is the potential solution for developing
dependable and robust systems. Intrinsic evolution approach and self-x properties ,
which include self-monitoring, -calibrating/trimming, and -healing/repairing, are among
the best candidates for the issue. Motivated from the ongoing research trends and based
on the background of our research work [12, 13] among the pioneers in this topic, the
research work of the thesis contributes to the design automation of intelligent integrated
In this research work, the Design Automation for Intelligent COgnitive system with self-
X properties, the DAICOX, architecture is presented with the aim of tackling the design
effort and to providing high quality and robust solutions for multi-sensor intelligent
systems. Therefore, the DAICOX architecture is conceived with the defined goals as
Perform front to back complete processing chain design with automated method
selection and parameterization,
Provide a rich choice of pattern recognition methods to the design method pool,
Associate design information via interactive user interface and visualization along
with intuitive visual programming,
Deliver high quality solutions outperforming conventional approaches by using
Gain the adaptability, reliability and robustness of designed solutions with self-x
Derived from the goals, several scientific methodological developments and implementations,
particularly in the areas of pattern recognition and computational intelligence,
will be pursued as part of the DAICOX architecture in the research work of this thesis.
The method pool is aimed to contain a rich choice of methods and algorithms covering
data acquisition and sensor configuration, signal processing and feature computation,
dimensionality reduction, and classification. These methods will be selected and parameterized
automatically by the DAICOX design optimization to construct a multi-sensory
cognition processing chain. A collection of non-parametric feature quality assessment
functions for the purpose of Dimensionality Reduction (DR) process will be presented.
In addition, to standard DR methods, the variations of feature selection method, in
particular, feature weighting will be proposed. Three different classification categories
shall be incorporated in the method pool. Hierarchical classification approach will be
proposed and developed to serve as a multi-sensor fusion architecture at the decision
level. Beside multi-class classification, one-class classification methods, e.g., One-Class
SVM and NOVCLASS will be presented to extend functionality of the solutions, in particular,
anomaly and novelty detection. DAICOX is conceived to effectively handle the
problem of method selection and parameter setting for a particular application yielding
high performance solutions. The processing chain construction tasks will be carried
out by meta-heuristic optimization methods, e.g., Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle
Swarm Optimization (PSO), with multi-objective optimization approach and model
analysis for robust solutions. In addition, to the automated system design mechanisms,
DAICOX will facilitate the design tasks with intuitive visual programming and various
options of visualization. Design database concept of DAICOX is aimed to allow the
reusability and extensibility of the designed solutions gained from previous knowledge.
Thus, the cooperative design of machine and knowledge from the design expert can also
be utilized for obtaining fully enhanced solutions. In particular, the integration of self-x
properties as well as intrinsic optimization into the system is proposed to gain enduring
reliability and robustness. Hence, DAICOX will allow the inclusion of dynamically
reconfigurable hardware instances to the designed solutions in order to realize intrinsic
optimization and self-x properties.
As a result from the research work in this thesis, a comprehensive intelligent multisensor
system design architecture with automated method selection, parameterization,
and model analysis is developed with compliance to open-source multi-platform software.It is integrated with an intuitive design environment, which includes visual programming
concept and design information visualizations. Thus, the design effort is minimized as
investigated in three case studies of different application background, e.g., food analysis
(LoX), driving assistance (DeCaDrive), and magnetic localization. Moreover, DAICOX
achieved better quality of the solutions compared to the manual approach in all cases,
where the classification rate was increased by 5.4%, 0.06%, and 11.4% in the LoX,
DeCaDrive, and magnetic localization case, respectively. The design time was reduced
by 81.87% compared to the conventional approach by using DAICOX in the LoX case
study. At the current state of development, a number of novel contributions of the thesis
are outlined below.
Automated processing chain construction and parameterization for the design of
signal processing and feature computation.
Novel dimensionality reduction methods, e.g., GA and PSO based feature selection
and feature weighting with multi-objective feature quality assessment.
A modification of non-parametric compactness measure for feature space quality
Decision level sensor fusion architecture based on proposed hierarchical classification
approach using, i.e., H-SVM.
A collection of one-class classification methods and a novel variation, i.e.,
Automated design toolboxes supporting front to back design with automated
model selection and information visualization.
In this research work, due to the complexity of the task, neither all of the identified goals
have been comprehensively reached yet nor has the complete architecture definition been
fully implemented. Based on the currently implemented tools and frameworks, ongoing
development of DAICOX is pursuing towards the complete architecture. The potential
future improvements are the extension of method pool with a richer choice of methods
and algorithms, processing chain breeding via graph based evolution approach, incorporation
of intrinsic optimization, and the integration of self-x properties. According to
these features, DAICOX will improve its aptness in designing advanced systems to serve
the increasingly growing technologies of distributed intelligent measurement systems, in
particular, CPS and Industrie 4.0.
Safety-related Systems (SRS) protect from the unacceptable risk resulting from failures of technical systems. The average probability of dangerous failure on demand (PFD) of these SRS in low demand mode is limited by standards. Probabilistic models are applied to determine the average PFD and verify the specified limits. In this thesis an effective framework for probabilistic modeling of complex SRS is provided. This framework enables to compute the average, instantaneous, and maximum PFD. In SRS, preventive maintenance (PM) is essential to achieve an average PFD in compliance with specified limits. PM intends to reveal dangerous undetected failures and provides repair if necessary. The introduced framework pays special attention to the precise and detailed modeling of PM. Multiple so far neglected degrees of freedom of the PM are considered, such as two types of elementwise PM at arbitrarily variable times. As shown by analyses, these degrees of freedom have a significant impact on the average, instantaneous, and maximum PFD. The PM is optimized to improve the average or maximum PFD or both. A well-known heuristic nonlinear optimization method (Nelder-Mead method) is applied to minimize the average or maximum PFD or a weighted trade-off. A significant improvement of the objectives and an improved protection are achieved. These improvements are achieved via the available degrees of freedom of the PM and without additional effort. Moreover, a set of rules is presented to decide for a given SRS if significant improvements will be achieved by optimization of the PM. These rules are based on the well-known characteristics of the SRS, e.g. redundancy or no redundancy, complete or incomplete coverage of PM. The presented rules aim to support the decision whether the optimization is advantageous for a given SRS and if it should be applied or not.
Seit Aufkommen der Halbleiter-Technologie existiert ein Trend zur Miniaturisierung elektronischer Systeme. Dies, steigende Anforderungen sowie die zunehmende Integration verschiedener Sensoren zur Interaktion mit der Umgebung lassen solche eingebetteten Systeme, wie sie zum Beispiel in mobilen Geräten oder Fahrzeugen vorkommen, zunehmend komplexer werden. Die Folgen sind ein Anstieg der Entwicklungszeit und ein immer höherer Bauteileaufwand, bei gleichzeitig geforderter Reduktion von Größe und Energiebedarf. Insbesondere der Entwurf von Multi-Sensor-Systemen verlangt für jeden verwendeten Sensortyp jeweils gesondert nach einer spezifischen Sensorelektronik und steht damit den Forderungen nach Miniaturisierung und geringem Leistungsverbrauch entgegen.
In dieser Forschungsarbeit wird das oben beschriebene Problem aufgegriffen und die Entwicklung eines universellen Sensor-Interfaces für eben solche Multi-Sensor-Systeme erörtert. Als ein einzelner integrierter Baustein kann dieses Interface bis zu neun verschiedenen Sensoren unterschiedlichen Typs als Sensorelektronik dienen. Die aufnehmbaren Messgrößen umfassen: Spannung, Strom, Widerstand, Kapazität, Induktivität und Impedanz.
Durch dynamische Rekonfigurierbarkeit und applikationsspezifische Programmierung wird eine variable Konfiguration entsprechend der jeweiligen Anforderungen ermöglicht. Sowohl der Entwicklungs- als auch der Bauteileaufwand können dank dieser Schnittstelle, die zudem einen Energiesparmodus beinhaltet, erheblich reduziert werden.
Die flexible Struktur ermöglicht den Aufbau intelligenter Systeme mit sogenannten Self-x Charakteristiken. Diese betreffen Fähigkeiten zur eigenständigen Systemüberwachung, Kalibrierung oder Reparatur und tragen damit zu einer erhöhten Robustheit und Fehlertoleranz bei. Als weitere Innovation enthält das universelle Interface neuartige Schaltungs- und Sensorkonzepte, beispielsweise zur Messung der Chip-Temperatur oder Kompensation thermischer Einflüsse auf die Sensorik.
Zwei unterschiedliche Anwendungen demonstrieren die Funktionalität der hergestellten Prototypen. Die realisierten Applikationen haben die Lebensmittelanalyse sowie die dreidimensionale magnetische Lokalisierung zum Gegenstand.
The advances in sensor technology have introduced smart electronic products with
high integration of multi-sensor elements, sensor electronics and sophisticated signal
processing algorithms, resulting in intelligent sensor systems with a significant level
of complexity. This complexity leads to higher vulnerability in performing their
respective functions in a dynamic environment. The system dependability can be
improved via the implementation of self-x features in reconfigurable systems. The
reconfiguration capability requires capable switching elements, typically in the form
of a CMOS switch or miniaturized electromagnetic relay. The emerging DC-MEMS
switch has the potential to complement the CMOS switch in System-in-Package as
well as integrated circuits solutions. The aim of this thesis is to study the feasibility
of using DC-MEMS switches to enable the self-x functionality at system level.
The self-x implementation is also extended to the component level, in which the
ISE-DC-MEMS switch is equipped with self-monitoring and self-repairing features.
The MEMS electrical behavioural model generated by the design tool is inadequate,
so additional electrical models have been proposed, simulated and validated. The
simplification of the mechanical MEMS model has produced inaccurate simulation
results that lead to the occurrence of stiction in the actual device. A stiction conformity
test has been proposed, implemented, and successfully validated to compensate
the inaccurate mechanical model. Four different system simulations of representative
applications were carried out using the improved behavioural MEMS model, to
show the aptness and the performances of the ISE-DC-MEMS switch in sensitive
reconfiguration tasks in the application and to compare it with transmission gates.
The current design of the ISE-DC-MEMS switch needs further optimization in terms
of size, driving voltage, and the robustness of the design to guarantee high output
yield in order to match the performance of commercial DC MEMS switches.
Vorgestellt wird ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Erdschlussentfernung in hochohmig geerdeten
Netzen. Nach Abklingen der transienten Vorgänge im Fehlerfall stellt sich ein stationärer
Zustand ein, in dem das Netz zunächst weiter betrieben werden kann.
Ausgehend von diesem stationären Fehlerfall wird auf der Basis eines Π-Glieds das Leitungsmodell
des einseitig gespeisten Stichabgangs mit einer Last in der Vier-Leiter-Darstellung
entwickelt. Die Schaltungsanalyse erfolgt mit Hilfe komplexer Rechnung und der Kirchhoffschen
Gesetze. Grundlage der Betrachtungen bildet das Netz mit isoliertem Sternpunkt.
Das entstehende Gleichungssystem ist in seiner Grundform nichtlinear, lässt sich jedoch auf eine
elementar lösbare kubische Gleichung im gesuchten Fehlerentfernungsparameter zurückführen.
Eine weitere Lösungsmöglichkeit bietet das Newton-Raphson-Verfahren.
Durch Verlegen der lastseitigen Leiter-Erd-Kapazitäten an den Abgangsanfang kann das vollständige,
nichtlineare System in ein lineares System überführt werden. Hierbei sind die beiden
Ausprägungen „direkte Lösung mit unsymmetrischer Last“ oder „Ausgleichsrechnung mit
symmetrischer Last“ möglich.
Eine MATLAB®-Implementierung dieser vier Rechenalgorithmen bildet die Basis der weiteren
Alle messtechnischen Untersuchungen erfolgten am Netz-Kraftwerksmodell der TU Kaiserslautern.
Hier wurden verschiedene Fehlerszenarien hinsichtlich Fehlerentfernung, -widerstand und
Größe des gesunden Restnetzes hergestellt, in 480 Einzelmessungen erfasst und mit den Algorithmen
ausgewertet. Dabei wurden auch Messungen an fehlerfreien Abgängen erhoben, um das
Detektionsvermögen der Algorithmen zu testen.
Neben Grundschwingungsbetrachtungen ist die Auswertung aller Datensätze mit der 5. und der
7. Harmonischen ein zentrales Thema. Im Fokus steht die Verwendbarkeit dieser Oberschwingungen
zur Erdschlussentfernungsmessung bzw. -detektion mit den o.g. Algorithmen.
Besondere Bedeutung kommt der Fragestellung zu, inwieweit die für ein Netz mit isoliertem
Sternpunkt konzipierten Algorithmen unter Benutzung der höheren Harmonischen zur Erdschlussentfernungsmessung
in einem gelöschten Netz geeignet sind.
Schließlich wird das Verfahren auf Abgänge mit inhomogenem Leitermaterial erweitert, da auch
diese Konstellation von praktischer Bedeutung ist.
Specification of asynchronous circuit behaviour becomes more complex as the
complexity of today’s System-On-a-Chip (SOC) design increases. This also causes
the Signal Transition Graphs (STGs) – interpreted Petri nets for the specification
of asynchronous circuit behaviour – to become bigger and more complex, which
makes it more difficult, sometimes even impossible, to synthesize an asynchronous
circuit from an STG with a tool like petrify [CKK+96] or CASCADE [BEW00].
It has, therefore, been suggested to decompose the STG as a first step; this
leads to a modular implementation [KWVB03] [KVWB05], which can reduce syn-
thesis effort by possibly avoiding state explosion or by allowing the use of library
elements. A decomposition approach for STGs was presented in [VW02] [KKT93]
[Chu87a]. The decomposition algorithm by Vogler and Wollowski [VW02] is based
on that of Chu [Chu87a] but is much more generally applicable than the one in
[KKT93] [Chu87a], and its correctness has been proved formally in [VW02].
This dissertation begins with Petri net background described in chapter 2.
It starts with a class of Petri nets called a place/transition (P/T) nets. Then
STGs, the subclass of P/T nets, is viewed. Background in net decomposition
is presented in chapter 3. It begins with the structural decomposition of P/T
nets for analysis purposes – liveness and boundedness of the net. Then STG
decomposition for synthesis from [VW02] is described.
The decomposition method from [VW02] still could be improved to deal with
STGs from real applications and to give better decomposition results. Some
improvements for [VW02] to improve decomposition result and increase algorithm
efficiency are discussed in chapter 4. These improvement ideas are suggested in
[KVWB04] and some of them are have been proved formally in [VK04].
The decomposition method from [VW02] is based on net reduction to find
an output block component. A large amount of work has to be done to reduce
an initial specification until the final component is found. This reduction is not
always possible, which causes input initially classified as irrelevant to become
relevant input for the component. But under certain conditions (e.g. if structural
auto-conflicts turn out to be non-dynamic) some of them could be reclassified as
irrelevant. If this is not done, the specifications become unnecessarily large, which
intern leads to unnecessarily large implemented circuits. Instead of reduction, a
new approach, presented in chapter 5, decomposes the original net into structural
components first. An initial output block component is found by composing the
structural components. Then, a final output block component is obtained by net
As we cope with the structure of a net most of the time, it would be useful
to have a structural abstraction of the net. A structural abstraction algorithm
[Kan03] is presented in chapter 6. It can improve the performance in finding an
output block component in most of the cases [War05] [Taw04]. Also, the structure
net is in most cases smaller than the net itself. This increases the efficiency of the
decomposition algorithm because it allows the transitions contained in a node of
the structure graph to be contracted at the same time if the structure graph is
used as internal representation of the net.
Chapter 7 discusses the application of STG decomposition in asynchronous
circuit design. Application to speed independent circuits is discussed first. Af-
ter that 3D circuits synthesized from extended burst mode (XBM) specifications
are discussed. An algorithm for translating STG specifications to XBM specifi-
cations was first suggested by [BEW99]. This algorithm first derives the state
machine from the STG specification, then translates the state machine to XBM
specification. An XBM specification, though it is a state machine, allows some
concurrency. These concurrencies can be translated directly, without deriving
all of the possible states. An algorithm which directly translates STG to XBM
specifications, is presented in chapter 7.3.1. Finally DESI, a tool to decompose
STGs and its decomposition results are presented.
Real-time systems are systems that have to react correctly to stimuli from the environment within given timing constraints.
Today, real-time systems are employed everywhere in industry, not only in safety-critical systems but also in, e.g., communication, entertainment, and multimedia systems.
With the advent of multicore platforms, new challenges on the efficient exploitation of real-time systems have arisen:
First, there is the need for effective scheduling algorithms that feature low overheads to improve the use of the computational resources of real-time systems.
The goal of these algorithms is to ensure timely execution of tasks, i.e., to provide runtime guarantees.
Additionally, many systems require their scheduling algorithm to flexibly react to unforeseen events.
Second, the inherent parallelism of multicore systems leads to contention for shared hardware resources and complicates system analysis.
At any time, multiple applications run with varying resource requirements and compete for the scarce resources of the system.
As a result, there is a need for an adaptive resource management.
Achieving and implementing an effective and efficient resource management is a challenging task.
The main goal of resource management is to guarantee a minimum resource availability to real-time applications.
A further goal is to fulfill global optimization objectives, e.g., maximization of the global system performance, or the user perceived quality of service.
In this thesis, we derive methods based on the slot shifting algorithm.
Slot shifting provides flexible scheduling of time-constrained applications and can react to unforeseen events in time-triggered systems.
For this reason, we aim at designing slot shifting based algorithms targeted for multicore systems to tackle the aforementioned challenges.
The main contribution of this thesis is to present two global slot shifting algorithms targeted for multicore systems.
Additionally, we extend slot shifting algorithms to improve their runtime behavior, or to handle non-preemptive firm aperiodic tasks.
In a variety of experiments, the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithms are evaluated and confirmed.
Finally, the thesis presents an implementation of a slot-shifting-based logic into a resource management framework for multicore systems.
Thus, the thesis closes the circle and successfully bridges the gap between real-time scheduling theory and real-world implementations.
We prove applicability of the slot shifting algorithm to effectively and efficiently perform adaptive resource management on multicore systems.
This work establishes the novel category of coordinated Wireless Backhaul Networks (WBNs) for energy-autarkic point-to-point radio backhauling. The networking concept is based on three major building blocks: cost-efficient radio transceiver hardware, a self-organizing network operations framework, and power supply from renewable energy sources. The aim of this novel backhauling approach is to combine carrier-grade network performance with reduced maintenance effort as well as independent and self-sufficient power supply. In order to facilitate the success prospects of this concept, the thesis comprises the following major contributions: Formal, multi-domain system model and evaluation methodology
First, adapted from the theory of cyber-physical systems, the author devises a multi-domain evaluation methodology and a system-level simulation framework for energy-autarkic coordinated WBNs, including a novel balanced scorecard concept. Second, the thesis specifically addresses the topic of Topology Control (TC) in point-to-point radio networks and how it can be exploited for network management purposes. Given a set of network nodes equipped with multiple radio transceivers and known locations, TC continuously optimizes the setup and configuration of radio links between network nodes, thus supporting initial network deployment, network operation, as well as topology re-configuration. In particular, the author shows that TC in WBNs belongs to the class of NP-hard quadratic assignment problems and that it has significant impact in operational practice, e.g., on routing efficiency, network redundancy levels, service reliability, and energy consumption. Two novel algorithms focusing on maximizing edge connectivity of network graphs are developed.
Finally, this work carries out an analytical benchmarking and a numerical performance analysis of the introduced concepts and algorithms. The author analytically derives minimum performance levels of the the developed TC algorithms. For the analyzed scenarios of remote Alpine communities and rural Tanzania, the evaluation shows that the algorithms improve energy efficiency and more evenly balance energy consumption across backhaul nodes, thus significantly increasing the number of available backhaul nodes compared to state-of-the-art TC algorithms.
The heterogeneity of today's access possibilities to wireless networks imposes challenges for efficient mobility support and resource management across different Radio Access Technologies (RATs). The current situation is characterized by the coexistence of various wireless communication systems, such as GSM, HSPA, LTE, WiMAX, and WLAN. These RATs greatly differ with respect to coverage, spectrum, data rates, Quality of Service (QoS), and mobility support.
In real systems, mobility-related events, such as Handover (HO) procedures, directly affect resource efficiency and End-To-End (E2E) performance, in particular with respect to signaling efforts and users' QoS. In order to lay a basis for realistic multi-radio network evaluation, a novel evaluation methodology is introduced in this thesis.
A central hypothesis of this thesis is that the consideration and exploitation of additional information characterizing user, network, and environment context, is beneficial for enhancing Heterogeneous Access Management (HAM) and Self-Optimizing Networks (SONs). Further, Mobile Network Operator (MNO) revenues are maximized by tightly integrating bandwidth adaptation and admission control mechanisms as well as simultaneously accounting for user profiles and service characteristics. In addition, mobility robustness is optimized by enabling network nodes to tune HO parameters according to locally observed conditions.
For establishing all these facets of context awareness, various schemes and algorithms are developed and evaluated in this thesis. System-level simulation results demonstrate the potential of context information exploitation for enhancing resource utilization, mobility support, self-tuning network operations, and users' E2E performance.
In essence, the conducted research activities and presented results motivate and substantiate the consideration of context awareness as key enabler for cognitive and autonomous network management. Further, the performed investigations and aspects evaluated in the scope of this thesis are highly relevant for future 5G wireless systems and current discussions in the 5G infrastructure Public Private Partnership (PPP).
In embedded systems, there is a trend of integrating several different functionalities on a common platform. This has been enabled by increasing processing power and the arise of integrated system-on-chips.
The composition of safety-critical and non-safety-critical applications results in mixed-criticality systems. Certification Authorities (CAs) demand the certification of safety-critical applications with strong confidence in the execution time bounds. As a consequence, CAs use conservative assumptions in the worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis which result in more pessimistic WCETs than the ones used by designers. The existence of certified safety-critical and non-safety-critical applications can be represented by dual-criticality systems, i.e., systems with two criticality levels.
In this thesis, we focus on the scheduling of mixed-criticality systems which are subject to certification. Scheduling policies cognizant of the mixed-criticality nature of the systems and the certification requirements are needed for efficient and effective scheduling. Furthermore, we aim at reducing the certification costs to allow faster modification and upgrading, and less error-prone certification. Besides certification aspects, requirements of different operational modes result in challenging problems for the scheduling process. Despite the mentioned problems, schedulers require a low runtime overhead for an efficient execution at runtime.
The presented solutions are centered around time-triggered systems which feature a low runtime overhead. We present a transformation to include event-triggered activities, represented by sporadic tasks, already into the offline scheduling process. Further, this transformation can also be applied on periodic tasks to shorten the length of schedule tables which reduces certification costs. These results can be used in our method to construct schedule tables which creates two schedule tables to fulfill the requirements of dual-criticality systems using mode changes at runtime. Finally, we present a scheduler based on the slot-shifting algorithm for mixed-criticality systems. In a first version, the method schedules dual-criticality jobs without the need for mode changes. An already certified schedule table can be used and at runtime, the scheduler reacts to the actual behavior of the jobs and thus, makes effective use of the available resources. Next, we extend this method to schedule mixed-criticality job sets with different operational modes. As a result, we can schedule jobs with varying parameters in different modes.