In current practices of system-on-chip (SoC) design a trend can be observed to integrate more and more low-level software components into the system hardware at different levels of granularity. The implementation of important control functions and communication structures is frequently shifted from the SoC’s hardware into its firmware. As a result, the tight coupling of hardware and software at a low level of granularity raises substantial verification challenges since the conventional practice of verifying hardware and software independently is no longer sufficient. This calls for new methods for verification based on a joint analysis of hardware and software.
This thesis proposes hardware-dependent models of low-level software for performing formal verification. The proposed models are conceived to represent the software integrated with its hardware environment according to the current SoC design practices. Two hardware/software integration scenarios are addressed in this thesis, namely, speed-independent communication of the processor with its hardware periphery and cycle-accurate integration of firmware into an SoC module. For speed-independent hardware/software integration an approach for equivalence checking of hardware-dependent software is proposed and an evaluated. For the case of cycle-accurate hardware/software integration, a model for hardware/software co-verification has been developed and experimentally evaluated by applying it to property checking.
Advanced sensing systems, sophisticated algorithms, and increasing computational resources continuously enhance the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). To date, despite that some vehicle based approaches to driver fatigue/drowsiness detection have been realized and deployed, objectively and reliably detecting the fatigue/drowsiness state of driver without compromising driving experience still remains challenging. In general, the choice of input sensorial information is limited in the state-of-the-art work. On the other hand, smart and safe driving, as representative future trends in the automotive industry worldwide, increasingly demands the new dimensional human-vehicle interactions, as well as the associated behavioral and bioinformatical data perception of driver. Thus, the goal of this research work is to investigate the employment of general and custom 3D-CMOS sensing concepts for the driver status monitoring, and to explore the improvement by merging/fusing this information with other salient customized information sources for gaining robustness/reliability. This thesis presents an effective multi-sensor approach with novel features to driver status monitoring and intention prediction aimed at drowsiness detection based on a multi-sensor intelligent assistance system -- DeCaDrive, which is implemented on an integrated soft-computing system with multi-sensing interfaces in a simulated driving environment. Utilizing active illumination, the IR depth camera of the realized system can provide rich facial and body features in 3D in a non-intrusive manner. In addition, steering angle sensor, pulse rate sensor, and embedded impedance spectroscopy sensor are incorporated to aid in the detection/prediction of driver's state and intention. A holistic design methodology for ADAS encompassing both driver- and vehicle-based approaches to driver assistance is discussed in the thesis as well. Multi-sensor data fusion and hierarchical SVM techniques are used in DeCaDrive to facilitate the classification of driver drowsiness levels based on which a warning can be issued in order to prevent possible traffic accidents. The realized DeCaDrive system achieves up to 99.66% classification accuracy on the defined drowsiness levels, and exhibits promising features such as head/eye tracking, blink detection, gaze estimation that can be utilized in human-vehicle interactions. However, the driver's state of "microsleep" can hardly be reflected in the sensor features of the implemented system. General improvements on the sensitivity of sensory components and on the system computation power are required to address this issue. Possible new features and development considerations for DeCaDrive are discussed as well in the thesis aiming to gain market acceptance in the future.
Safety-related Systems (SRS) protect from the unacceptable risk resulting from failures of technical systems. The average probability of dangerous failure on demand (PFD) of these SRS in low demand mode is limited by standards. Probabilistic models are applied to determine the average PFD and verify the specified limits. In this thesis an effective framework for probabilistic modeling of complex SRS is provided. This framework enables to compute the average, instantaneous, and maximum PFD. In SRS, preventive maintenance (PM) is essential to achieve an average PFD in compliance with specified limits. PM intends to reveal dangerous undetected failures and provides repair if necessary. The introduced framework pays special attention to the precise and detailed modeling of PM. Multiple so far neglected degrees of freedom of the PM are considered, such as two types of elementwise PM at arbitrarily variable times. As shown by analyses, these degrees of freedom have a significant impact on the average, instantaneous, and maximum PFD. The PM is optimized to improve the average or maximum PFD or both. A well-known heuristic nonlinear optimization method (Nelder-Mead method) is applied to minimize the average or maximum PFD or a weighted trade-off. A significant improvement of the objectives and an improved protection are achieved. These improvements are achieved via the available degrees of freedom of the PM and without additional effort. Moreover, a set of rules is presented to decide for a given SRS if significant improvements will be achieved by optimization of the PM. These rules are based on the well-known characteristics of the SRS, e.g. redundancy or no redundancy, complete or incomplete coverage of PM. The presented rules aim to support the decision whether the optimization is advantageous for a given SRS and if it should be applied or not.
In DS-CDMA, spreading sequences are allocated to users to separate different
links namely, the base-station to user in the downlink or the user to base station in the uplink. These sequences are designed for optimum periodic correlation properties. Sequences with good periodic auto-correlation properties help in frame synchronisation at the receiver while sequences with good periodic cross-
correlation property reduce cross-talk among users and hence reduce the interference among them. In addition, they are designed to have reduced implementation complexity so that they are easy to generate. In current systems, spreading sequences are allocated to users irrespective of their channel condition. In this thesis,
the method of allocating spreading sequences based on users’ channel condition
is investigated in order to improve the performance of the downlink. Different
methods of dynamically allocating the sequences are investigated including; optimum allocation through a simulation model, fast sub-optimum allocation through
a mathematical model, and a proof-of-concept model using real-world channel
measurements. Each model is evaluated to validate, improvements in the gain
achieved per link, computational complexity of the allocation scheme, and its impact on the capacity of the network.
In cryptography, secret keys are used to ensure confidentiality of communication between the legitimate nodes of a network. In a wireless ad-hoc network, the
broadcast nature of the channel necessitates robust key management systems for
secure functioning of the network. Physical layer security is a novel method of
profitably utilising the random and reciprocal variations of the wireless channel to
extract secret key. By measuring the characteristics of the wireless channel within
its coherence time, reciprocal variations of the channel can be observed between
a pair of nodes. Using these reciprocal characteristics of
common shared secret key is extracted between a pair of the nodes. The process
of key extraction consists of four steps namely; channel measurement, quantisation, information reconciliation, and privacy amplification. The reciprocal channel
variations are measured and quantised to obtain a preliminary key of vector bits (0; 1). Due to errors in measurement, quantisation, and additive Gaussian noise,
disagreement in the bits of preliminary keys exists. These errors are corrected
by using, error detection and correction methods to obtain a synchronised key at
both the nodes. Further, by the method of secure hashing, the entropy of the key
is enhanced in the privacy amplification stage. The efficiency of the key generation process depends on the method of channel measurement and quantisation.
Instead of quantising the channel measurements directly, if their reciprocity is enhanced and then quantised appropriately, the key generation process can be made efficient and fast. In this thesis, four methods of enhancing reciprocity are presented namely; l1-norm minimisation, Hierarchical clustering, Kalman filtering,
and Polynomial regression. They are appropriately quantised by binary and adaptive quantisation. Then, the entire process of key generation, from measuring the channel profile to obtaining a secure key is validated by using real-world channel measurements. The performance evaluation is done by comparing their performance in terms of bit disagreement rate, key generation rate, test of randomness,
robustness test, and eavesdropper test. An architecture, KeyBunch, for effectively
deploying the physical layer security in mobile and vehicular ad-hoc networks is
also proposed. Finally, as an use-case, KeyBunch is deployed in a secure vehicular communication architecture, to highlight the advantages offered by physical layer security.
The recently established technologies in the areas of distributed measurement and intelligent
information processing systems, e.g., Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), Ambient
Intelligence/Ambient Assisted Living systems (AmI/AAL), the Internet of Things
(IoT), and Industry 4.0 have increased the demand for the development of intelligent
integrated multi-sensory systems as to serve rapid growing markets [1, 2]. These increase
the significance of complex measurement systems, that incorporate numerous advanced
methodological implementations including electronics circuit, signal processing,
and multi-sensory information fusion. In particular, in multi-sensory cognition applications,
to design such systems, the skill-required tasks, e.g., method selection, parameterization,
model analysis, and processing chain construction are elaborated with immense
effort, which conventionally are done manually by the expert designer. Moreover, the
strong technological competition imposes even more complicated design problems with
multiple constraints, e.g., cost, speed, power consumption,
exibility, and reliability.
Thus, the conventional human expert based design approach may not be able to cope
with the increasing demand in numbers, complexity, and diversity. To alleviate the issue,
the design automation approach has been the topic for numerous research works [3-14]
and has been commercialized to several products [15-18]. Additionally, the dynamic
adaptation of intelligent multi-sensor systems is the potential solution for developing
dependable and robust systems. Intrinsic evolution approach and self-x properties ,
which include self-monitoring, -calibrating/trimming, and -healing/repairing, are among
the best candidates for the issue. Motivated from the ongoing research trends and based
on the background of our research work [12, 13] among the pioneers in this topic, the
research work of the thesis contributes to the design automation of intelligent integrated
In this research work, the Design Automation for Intelligent COgnitive system with self-
X properties, the DAICOX, architecture is presented with the aim of tackling the design
effort and to providing high quality and robust solutions for multi-sensor intelligent
systems. Therefore, the DAICOX architecture is conceived with the defined goals as
Perform front to back complete processing chain design with automated method
selection and parameterization,
Provide a rich choice of pattern recognition methods to the design method pool,
Associate design information via interactive user interface and visualization along
with intuitive visual programming,
Deliver high quality solutions outperforming conventional approaches by using
Gain the adaptability, reliability and robustness of designed solutions with self-x
Derived from the goals, several scientific methodological developments and implementations,
particularly in the areas of pattern recognition and computational intelligence,
will be pursued as part of the DAICOX architecture in the research work of this thesis.
The method pool is aimed to contain a rich choice of methods and algorithms covering
data acquisition and sensor configuration, signal processing and feature computation,
dimensionality reduction, and classification. These methods will be selected and parameterized
automatically by the DAICOX design optimization to construct a multi-sensory
cognition processing chain. A collection of non-parametric feature quality assessment
functions for the purpose of Dimensionality Reduction (DR) process will be presented.
In addition, to standard DR methods, the variations of feature selection method, in
particular, feature weighting will be proposed. Three different classification categories
shall be incorporated in the method pool. Hierarchical classification approach will be
proposed and developed to serve as a multi-sensor fusion architecture at the decision
level. Beside multi-class classification, one-class classification methods, e.g., One-Class
SVM and NOVCLASS will be presented to extend functionality of the solutions, in particular,
anomaly and novelty detection. DAICOX is conceived to effectively handle the
problem of method selection and parameter setting for a particular application yielding
high performance solutions. The processing chain construction tasks will be carried
out by meta-heuristic optimization methods, e.g., Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle
Swarm Optimization (PSO), with multi-objective optimization approach and model
analysis for robust solutions. In addition, to the automated system design mechanisms,
DAICOX will facilitate the design tasks with intuitive visual programming and various
options of visualization. Design database concept of DAICOX is aimed to allow the
reusability and extensibility of the designed solutions gained from previous knowledge.
Thus, the cooperative design of machine and knowledge from the design expert can also
be utilized for obtaining fully enhanced solutions. In particular, the integration of self-x
properties as well as intrinsic optimization into the system is proposed to gain enduring
reliability and robustness. Hence, DAICOX will allow the inclusion of dynamically
reconfigurable hardware instances to the designed solutions in order to realize intrinsic
optimization and self-x properties.
As a result from the research work in this thesis, a comprehensive intelligent multisensor
system design architecture with automated method selection, parameterization,
and model analysis is developed with compliance to open-source multi-platform software.It is integrated with an intuitive design environment, which includes visual programming
concept and design information visualizations. Thus, the design effort is minimized as
investigated in three case studies of different application background, e.g., food analysis
(LoX), driving assistance (DeCaDrive), and magnetic localization. Moreover, DAICOX
achieved better quality of the solutions compared to the manual approach in all cases,
where the classification rate was increased by 5.4%, 0.06%, and 11.4% in the LoX,
DeCaDrive, and magnetic localization case, respectively. The design time was reduced
by 81.87% compared to the conventional approach by using DAICOX in the LoX case
study. At the current state of development, a number of novel contributions of the thesis
are outlined below.
Automated processing chain construction and parameterization for the design of
signal processing and feature computation.
Novel dimensionality reduction methods, e.g., GA and PSO based feature selection
and feature weighting with multi-objective feature quality assessment.
A modification of non-parametric compactness measure for feature space quality
Decision level sensor fusion architecture based on proposed hierarchical classification
approach using, i.e., H-SVM.
A collection of one-class classification methods and a novel variation, i.e.,
Automated design toolboxes supporting front to back design with automated
model selection and information visualization.
In this research work, due to the complexity of the task, neither all of the identified goals
have been comprehensively reached yet nor has the complete architecture definition been
fully implemented. Based on the currently implemented tools and frameworks, ongoing
development of DAICOX is pursuing towards the complete architecture. The potential
future improvements are the extension of method pool with a richer choice of methods
and algorithms, processing chain breeding via graph based evolution approach, incorporation
of intrinsic optimization, and the integration of self-x properties. According to
these features, DAICOX will improve its aptness in designing advanced systems to serve
the increasingly growing technologies of distributed intelligent measurement systems, in
particular, CPS and Industrie 4.0.
The current procedures for achieving industrial process surveillance, waste reduction, and prognosis of critical process states are still insufficient in some parts of the manufacturing industry. Increasing competitive pressure, falling margins, increasing cost, just-in-time production, environmental protection requirements, and guidelines concerning energy savings pose new challenges to manufacturing companies, from the semiconductor to the pharmaceutical industry.
New, more intelligent technologies adapted to the current technical standards provide companies with improved options to tackle these situations. Here, knowledge-based approaches open up pathways that have not yet been exploited to their full extent. The Knowledge-Discovery-Process for knowledge generation describes such a concept. Based on an understanding of the problems arising during production, it derives conclusions from real data, processes these data, transfers them into evaluated models and, by this open-loop approach, reiteratively reflects the results in order to resolve the production problems. Here, the generation of data through control units, their transfer via field bus for storage in database systems, their formatting, and the immediate querying of these data, their analysis and their subsequent presentation with its ensuing benefits play a decisive role.
The aims of this work result from the lack of systematic approaches to the above-mentioned issues, such as process visualization, the generation of recommendations, the prediction of unknown sensor und production states, and statements on energy cost.
Both science and commerce offer mature statistical tools for data preprocessing, analysis and modeling, and for the final reporting step. Since their creation, the insurance business, the world of banking, market analysis, and marketing have been the application fields of these software types; they are now expanding to the production environment.
Appropriate modeling can be achieved via specific machine learning procedures, which have been established in various industrial areas, e.g., in process surveillance by optical control systems. Here, State-of-the-art classification methods are used, with multiple applications comprising sensor technology, process areas, and production site data. Manufacturing companies now intend to establish a more holistic surveillance of process data, such as, e.g., sensor failures or process deviations, to identify dependencies. The causes of quality problems must be recognized and selected in real time from about 500 attributes of a highly complex production machine. Based on these identified causes, recommendations for improvement must then be generated for the operator at the machine, in order to enable timely measures to avoid these quality deviations.
Unfortunately, the ability to meet the required increases in efficiency – with simultaneous consumption and waste minimization – still depends on data that are, for the most part, not available. There is an overrepresentation of positive examples whereas the number of definite negative examples is too low.
The acquired information can be influenced by sensor drift effects and the occurrence of quality degradation may not be adequately recognized. Sensorless diagnostic procedures with dual use of actuators can be of help here.
Moreover, in the course of a process, critical states with sometimes unexplained behavior can occur. Also in these cases, deviations could be reduced by early countermeasures.
The generation of data models using appropriate statistical methods is of advantage here.
Conventional classification methods sometimes reach their limits. Supervised learning methods are mostly used in areas of high information density with sufficient data available for the classes under examination. However, there is a growing trend (e.g., spam filtering) to apply supervised learning methods to underrepresented classes, the datasets of which are, at best, outliers or not at all existent.
The application field of One-Class Classification (OCC) deals with this issue. Standard classification procedures (e.g., k-nearest-neighbor classifier, support vector machines) can be modified in adjustment to such problems. Thereby, a control system is able to classify statements on changing process states or sensor deviations. The above-described knowledge discovery process was employed in a case study from the polymer film industry, at the Mondi Gronau GmbH, taken as an example, and accomplished by a real-data survey at the production site and subsequent data preprocessing, modeling, evaluation, and deployment as a system for the generation of recommendations. To this end, questions regarding the following topics had to be clarified: data sources, datasets and their formatting, transfer pathways, storage media, query sequences, the employed methods of classification, their adjustment to the problems at hand, evaluation of the results, construction of a dynamic cycle, and the final implementation in the production process, along with its surplus value for the company.
Pivotal options for optimization with respect to ecological and economical aspects can be found here. Capacity for improvement is given in the reduction of energy consumption, CO\(_2\) emissions, and waste at all machines. At this one site, savings of several million euros per month can be achieved.
One major difficulty so far has been hardly accessible process data which, distributed on various data sources and unconnected, in some areas led to an increased analysis effort and a lack of holistic real-time quality surveillance. Monitoring of specifications and the thus obtained support for the operator at the installation resulted in a clear disadvantage with regard to cost minimization.
The data of the case study, captured according to their purposes and in coordination with process experts, amounted to 21,900 process datasets from cast film extrusion during 2 years’ time, including sensor data from dosing facilities and 300 site-specific energy datasets from the years 2002–2014.
In the following, the investigation sequence is displayed:
1. In the first step, industrial approaches according to Industrie 4.0 and related to Big Data were investigated. The applied statistical software suites and their functions were compared with a focus on real-time data acquisition from database systems, different data formats, their sensor locations at the machines, and the data processing part. The linkage of datasets from various data sources for, e.g., labeling and downstream exploration according to the knowledge discovery process is of high importance for polymer manufacturing applications.
2. In the second step, the aims were defined according to the industrial requirements, i.e. the critical production problem called “cut-off” as the main selection, and with regard to their investigation with machine learning methods. Therefore, a system architecture corresponding to the polymer industry was developed, containing the following processing steps: data acquisition, monitoring \& recommendation, and self-configuration.
3. The novel sensor datasets, with 160–2,500 real and synthetic attributes, were acquired within 1-min intervals via PLC and field bus from an Oracle database. The 160 features were reduced to 6 dimensions with feature reduction methods. Due to underrepresentation of the critical class, the learning approaches had to be modified and optimized for one-class classification, which achieved 99% accuracy after training, testing and evaluation with real datasets.
4. In the next step, the 6-dimensional dataset was scaled into lower 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional space with classical and non-classical mapping approaches for downstream visualization. The mapped view was separated into zones of normal and abnormal process conditions by threshold setting.
5. Afterwards, the boundary zone was investigated and an approach for trajectory extraction consisting of condition points in sequence was developed, to optimize the prediction behavior of the model. The extracted trajectories were trained, tested and evaluated by State-of-the-art classification methods, achieving a 99% recognition ratio.
6. In the last step, the best methods and processing parts were converted into a specifically developed domain-specific graphical user interface for real-time visualization of process condition changes. The requirements of such an interface were discussed with the operators with regard to intuitive handling, interactive visualization and recommendations (as e.g., messaging and traffic lights), and implemented.
The software prototype was tested at a laboratory machine. Correct recognition of abnormal process problems was achieved at a 90\% ratio. The software was afterwards transferred to a group of on-line production machines.
As demonstrated, the monthly amount of waste arising at machine M150 could be decreased from 20.96% to 12.44% during the application time. The frequency of occurrence of the specific problem was reduced by 30% related to monthly savings of 50,000 EUR.
In the approach pertaining to the energy prognosis of load profiles, monthly energy data from 2002 to 2014 (about 36 trajectories with three to eight real parameters each) were used as the basis, analyzed and modeled systematically. The prognosis quality increased with approaching target date. Thereby, the site-specific load profile for 2014 could be predicted with an accuracy of 99%.
The achievement of sustained cost reductions of several 100,000 euros, combined with additional savings of EUR 2.8 million, could be demonstrated.
The process improvements achieved while pursuing scientific targets could be successfully and permanently integrated at the case study plant. The increase in methodical and experimental knowledge was reflected by first economical results and could be verified numerically. The expectations of the company were more than fulfilled and further developments based on the new findings were initiated. Among the new finding are the transfer of the scientific findings onto more machines and even the initiation of further studies expanding into the diagnostics area.
Considering the size of the enterprise, future enhanced success should also be possible for other locations. In the course of the grid charge exemption according to EEG, the energy savings at further German locations can amount to 4–11% on a monetary basis and at least 5% based on energy. Up to 10% of materials and cost can be saved with regard to waste reduction related to specific problems. According to projections, material savings of 5–10 t per month and time savings of up to 50 person-hours are achievable. Important synergy effects can be created by the knowledge transfer.
The advances in sensor technology have introduced smart electronic products with
high integration of multi-sensor elements, sensor electronics and sophisticated signal
processing algorithms, resulting in intelligent sensor systems with a significant level
of complexity. This complexity leads to higher vulnerability in performing their
respective functions in a dynamic environment. The system dependability can be
improved via the implementation of self-x features in reconfigurable systems. The
reconfiguration capability requires capable switching elements, typically in the form
of a CMOS switch or miniaturized electromagnetic relay. The emerging DC-MEMS
switch has the potential to complement the CMOS switch in System-in-Package as
well as integrated circuits solutions. The aim of this thesis is to study the feasibility
of using DC-MEMS switches to enable the self-x functionality at system level.
The self-x implementation is also extended to the component level, in which the
ISE-DC-MEMS switch is equipped with self-monitoring and self-repairing features.
The MEMS electrical behavioural model generated by the design tool is inadequate,
so additional electrical models have been proposed, simulated and validated. The
simplification of the mechanical MEMS model has produced inaccurate simulation
results that lead to the occurrence of stiction in the actual device. A stiction conformity
test has been proposed, implemented, and successfully validated to compensate
the inaccurate mechanical model. Four different system simulations of representative
applications were carried out using the improved behavioural MEMS model, to
show the aptness and the performances of the ISE-DC-MEMS switch in sensitive
reconfiguration tasks in the application and to compare it with transmission gates.
The current design of the ISE-DC-MEMS switch needs further optimization in terms
of size, driving voltage, and the robustness of the design to guarantee high output
yield in order to match the performance of commercial DC MEMS switches.
Vorgestellt wird ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Erdschlussentfernung in hochohmig geerdeten
Netzen. Nach Abklingen der transienten Vorgänge im Fehlerfall stellt sich ein stationärer
Zustand ein, in dem das Netz zunächst weiter betrieben werden kann.
Ausgehend von diesem stationären Fehlerfall wird auf der Basis eines Π-Glieds das Leitungsmodell
des einseitig gespeisten Stichabgangs mit einer Last in der Vier-Leiter-Darstellung
entwickelt. Die Schaltungsanalyse erfolgt mit Hilfe komplexer Rechnung und der Kirchhoffschen
Gesetze. Grundlage der Betrachtungen bildet das Netz mit isoliertem Sternpunkt.
Das entstehende Gleichungssystem ist in seiner Grundform nichtlinear, lässt sich jedoch auf eine
elementar lösbare kubische Gleichung im gesuchten Fehlerentfernungsparameter zurückführen.
Eine weitere Lösungsmöglichkeit bietet das Newton-Raphson-Verfahren.
Durch Verlegen der lastseitigen Leiter-Erd-Kapazitäten an den Abgangsanfang kann das vollständige,
nichtlineare System in ein lineares System überführt werden. Hierbei sind die beiden
Ausprägungen „direkte Lösung mit unsymmetrischer Last“ oder „Ausgleichsrechnung mit
symmetrischer Last“ möglich.
Eine MATLAB®-Implementierung dieser vier Rechenalgorithmen bildet die Basis der weiteren
Alle messtechnischen Untersuchungen erfolgten am Netz-Kraftwerksmodell der TU Kaiserslautern.
Hier wurden verschiedene Fehlerszenarien hinsichtlich Fehlerentfernung, -widerstand und
Größe des gesunden Restnetzes hergestellt, in 480 Einzelmessungen erfasst und mit den Algorithmen
ausgewertet. Dabei wurden auch Messungen an fehlerfreien Abgängen erhoben, um das
Detektionsvermögen der Algorithmen zu testen.
Neben Grundschwingungsbetrachtungen ist die Auswertung aller Datensätze mit der 5. und der
7. Harmonischen ein zentrales Thema. Im Fokus steht die Verwendbarkeit dieser Oberschwingungen
zur Erdschlussentfernungsmessung bzw. -detektion mit den o.g. Algorithmen.
Besondere Bedeutung kommt der Fragestellung zu, inwieweit die für ein Netz mit isoliertem
Sternpunkt konzipierten Algorithmen unter Benutzung der höheren Harmonischen zur Erdschlussentfernungsmessung
in einem gelöschten Netz geeignet sind.
Schließlich wird das Verfahren auf Abgänge mit inhomogenem Leitermaterial erweitert, da auch
diese Konstellation von praktischer Bedeutung ist.
In embedded systems, there is a trend of integrating several different functionalities on a common platform. This has been enabled by increasing processing power and the arise of integrated system-on-chips.
The composition of safety-critical and non-safety-critical applications results in mixed-criticality systems. Certification Authorities (CAs) demand the certification of safety-critical applications with strong confidence in the execution time bounds. As a consequence, CAs use conservative assumptions in the worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis which result in more pessimistic WCETs than the ones used by designers. The existence of certified safety-critical and non-safety-critical applications can be represented by dual-criticality systems, i.e., systems with two criticality levels.
In this thesis, we focus on the scheduling of mixed-criticality systems which are subject to certification. Scheduling policies cognizant of the mixed-criticality nature of the systems and the certification requirements are needed for efficient and effective scheduling. Furthermore, we aim at reducing the certification costs to allow faster modification and upgrading, and less error-prone certification. Besides certification aspects, requirements of different operational modes result in challenging problems for the scheduling process. Despite the mentioned problems, schedulers require a low runtime overhead for an efficient execution at runtime.
The presented solutions are centered around time-triggered systems which feature a low runtime overhead. We present a transformation to include event-triggered activities, represented by sporadic tasks, already into the offline scheduling process. Further, this transformation can also be applied on periodic tasks to shorten the length of schedule tables which reduces certification costs. These results can be used in our method to construct schedule tables which creates two schedule tables to fulfill the requirements of dual-criticality systems using mode changes at runtime. Finally, we present a scheduler based on the slot-shifting algorithm for mixed-criticality systems. In a first version, the method schedules dual-criticality jobs without the need for mode changes. An already certified schedule table can be used and at runtime, the scheduler reacts to the actual behavior of the jobs and thus, makes effective use of the available resources. Next, we extend this method to schedule mixed-criticality job sets with different operational modes. As a result, we can schedule jobs with varying parameters in different modes.
The heterogeneity of today's access possibilities to wireless networks imposes challenges for efficient mobility support and resource management across different Radio Access Technologies (RATs). The current situation is characterized by the coexistence of various wireless communication systems, such as GSM, HSPA, LTE, WiMAX, and WLAN. These RATs greatly differ with respect to coverage, spectrum, data rates, Quality of Service (QoS), and mobility support.
In real systems, mobility-related events, such as Handover (HO) procedures, directly affect resource efficiency and End-To-End (E2E) performance, in particular with respect to signaling efforts and users' QoS. In order to lay a basis for realistic multi-radio network evaluation, a novel evaluation methodology is introduced in this thesis.
A central hypothesis of this thesis is that the consideration and exploitation of additional information characterizing user, network, and environment context, is beneficial for enhancing Heterogeneous Access Management (HAM) and Self-Optimizing Networks (SONs). Further, Mobile Network Operator (MNO) revenues are maximized by tightly integrating bandwidth adaptation and admission control mechanisms as well as simultaneously accounting for user profiles and service characteristics. In addition, mobility robustness is optimized by enabling network nodes to tune HO parameters according to locally observed conditions.
For establishing all these facets of context awareness, various schemes and algorithms are developed and evaluated in this thesis. System-level simulation results demonstrate the potential of context information exploitation for enhancing resource utilization, mobility support, self-tuning network operations, and users' E2E performance.
In essence, the conducted research activities and presented results motivate and substantiate the consideration of context awareness as key enabler for cognitive and autonomous network management. Further, the performed investigations and aspects evaluated in the scope of this thesis are highly relevant for future 5G wireless systems and current discussions in the 5G infrastructure Public Private Partnership (PPP).