In this study, two outstanding subgroups of organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been investigated. The first part covers the design, synthesis, characterization and application of seven novel Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) containing functionalized biphenyl dicarboxylates as linkers. In the second part, the surface modification of the metal oxides ZrO2, TiO2 and Al2O3 using phosphonate derivates is reported.
Firstly three functionalized MOF structures; ZnBrBPDC, ZnNO2BPDC and ZnNH2BPDC were synthesised using 4,4´-biphenyldicarboxylic acid derivatives with different functional groups (-Br, -NO2, -NH2) Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurements indicated that the synthesised MOFs posses the interpenetrated IRMOF-9 structure with a cubic topology, which was also confirmed with single crystal X-ray measurements. The chemical structure of the MOF materials was further proved by solid state NMR and IR measurements. N2 adsorption measurements showed Type I isotherms for all three structures with large surface areas. TGA measurements of the evacuated samples were in good agreement with the elemental analysis data. The results proved that their thermal stability is between 325 °C - 450 °C.
Adsorption properties of these MOF structures were tested using light alkanes (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, and n-C4H10) at three different temperatures. For all adsorbents, the maximum uptakes were observed at 273 K. When the temperature was increased, the amount of the adsorbed gas decreased. All three MOFs showed strong affinities for n-butane. The lowest uptakes were observed for CH4.
The effect of functional groups on the IRMOF series was also examined by synthesizing amide functionalized biphenyl linkers. For this purpose, four different linkers containing amides with different alkyl chains (C1-C4) were synthesized and used for the synthesis of four new MOF structures ZnAcBPDC, ZnPrBPDC, ZnBuBPDC and ZnPeBPDC.
PXRD measurements of ZnAcBPDC indicated that the structure contains two different phases. PXRD patterns of ZnPrBPDC, ZnBuBPDC and ZnPeBPDC revealed non-interpenetrated structures which were further proved by single crystal X-ray measurements. The chemical structure of the MOF materials was further confirmed by X-ray spectoscopy, solid state NMR and IR measurements.
N2 adsorption measurements of the MOF structures were carried out using different activation methods. For all four MOFs, Type I isotherms were obtained. ZnAcBPDC showed the highest BET surface area. ZnAcBPDC and ZnBuBPDC were tested for their alkane, alkene and CO2 adsorption capacities.
In the second part of the work, the surface modification of three different metal oxides, ZrO2, TiO2 and Al2O3 was performed. For this purpose firstly three different fluorescent phosphonate derivatives containing thiophene units were synthesized from their halo derivatives in a four step synthesis and then used as coupling molecules for the surface modification. Nine different surfaces were obtained (38@TiO2, 39@TiO2, 40@TiO2, 38@Al2O3, 39@Al2O3, 40@Al2O3, 38@ZrO2, 39@ZrO2, 40@ZrO2).
All three modified metal oxide surfaces were characterized using elemental analysis, solid state NMR and IR spectroscopy. The BET surface areas of the materials were determined by N2 adsorption measurements. TGA was used to determine the stability of the surfaces. Maximum loadings were obtained for ZrO2 surfaces.
Due to the strong luminescence of the coupling molecules, the modified surfaces were checked for their light emission. All ZrO2 and Al2O3 surfaces showed fluorescence with exception of 40@Al2O3. On the other hand, for the modified TiO2 surfaces, no fluorescence could be observed.
The scientific aim of this work was to synthesize and characterize new bidentate and tridentate phosphine ligands , their corresponding palladium complexes and to examine their application as homogenous catalysts. Later on, a part of the obtained palladium catalysts was immobilized and used as heterogonous catalyst.
Pyrimidinyl functionalized diphenyl phosphine ligands were synthesized by ring closure of [2-(3-dimethylamino-1-oxoprop-2-en-yl)phenyl]diphenylphosphine with an excess of substituted guanidinium salts. Furthermore to increase the electron density at phosphorous centre the two aryl substituents on the phosphanyl group were exchanged against two alkyl substituents. Electron rich pyrimidinyl functionalized dialkyl phosphine ligands were synthesized from pyrimidinyl functionalized bromobenzene in a process involving lithiation followed by reaction with a chlorodialkylphosphine.
Starting from the new synthesized diaryl phosphine ligands, their corresponding palladium complexes were synthesized. I was able to show that slight changes at the amino group of [(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)aryl]phosphines lead to pronounced differences in the stability and catalytic activity of the corresponding palladium(II) complexes. Having a P,C coordination mode, the palladium complex can catalyze rapidly the Suzuki coupling reaction of phenylbronic acid with arylbromides even at room temperature with a low loading.
Using the NH2 group of the aminopyrimidine as a potential site for the introduction of an other substituent, bidentate and tridentate ligands containing phosphorous atoms connected to the aminopyrimidine group and their corresponding palladium complexes were synthesized and characterized.
Two ligands [2- and 4-(4-(2-amino)pyrimidinyl)phenyl]diphenylphosphine (containing NH2 group) functionalized with a ethoxysilane group were synthesized. The palladium complexes based on these ligands were prepared and immobilized on commercial silica and MCM-41. Using elemental analysis, FT-IR, solid state 31P, 13C and 29Si CP–MAS NMR spectroscopy, XRD and N2 adsorption the success of the immobilization was confirmed and the structure of the heterogenized catalyst was investigated.
The resulting heterogeneous catalysts were applied for the Suzuki reaction and exhibited excellent activity, selectivity and reusability.
Due to their N-glycosidase activity, ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are attractive candidates as antitumor and antiviral agents in medical and biological research. In the present study, we have successfully cloned two different truncated gelonins into pET-28a(+) vectors and expressed intact recombinant gelonin (rGel), recombinant C-terminally truncated gelonin (rC3-gelonin) and recombinant N- and C-terminally truncated gelonin (rN34C3-gelonin). Biological experiments showed that all these recombinant gelonins have no inhibiting effect on MCF-7 cell lines. These data suggest that the truncated-gelonins are still having a specific structure that does not allow for internalization into cells. Further, truncation of gelonin leads to partial or complete loss of N-glycosidase as well as DNase activity compared to intact rGel. Our data suggest that C-and N-terminal amino acid residues are involved in the catalytic and cytotoxic activities of rGel. In addition, the intact gelonin should be selected as a toxin in the immunoconjugate rather than truncated gelonin.
In the second part, an immunotoxin composed of gelonin, a basic protein of 30 kDa isolated from the Indian plant Gelonium multiflorum and the cytotoxic drug MTX has been studied as a potential tool of gelonin delivery into the cytoplasm of cells. Results of many experiments showed that, on the average, about 5 molecules of MTX were coupled to one molecule of gelonin. The MTX-gelonin conjugate is able to reduce the viability of MCF-7 cell in a dose-dependent manner (ID50, 10 nM) as shown by MTT assay and significantly induce direct and oxidative DNA damage as shown by the alkaline comet assay. However, in-vitro translation toxicity MTX-gelonin conjugates have IC50, 50.5 ng/ml which is less toxic than that of gelonin alone IC50, 4.6 ng/ml. It can be concluded that the positive charge plays an important role in the N-glycosidase activity of gelonin. Furthermore, conjugation of MTX with gelonin through α- and γ- carboxyl groups leads to the partial loss of its anti-folate activity compared to free MTX. These results, taken together, indicate that conjugation of MTX to gelonin permits delivery of the gelonin into the cytoplasm of cancer cells and exerts a measurable toxic effect.
In the third part, we have isolated and characterized two ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) type I, gelonin and GAP31, from seeds of Gelonium multiflorum. Both proteins exhibit RNA-N-glycosidase activity. The amino acid sequences of gelonin and GAP31 were identified by MALDI and ESI mass spectrometry. Gelonin and GAP31 peptides - obtained by proteolytic digestion (trypsin and Arg-C) - are consistent with the amino acid sequence published by Rosenblum and Huang, respectively. Further structural characterization of gelonin and GAP31 (tryptic and Arg-C peptide mapping) showed that the two RIPs have 96% similarity in their sequence. Thus, these two proteins are most probably isoforms arisen from the same gene by alternative splicing. The ESI-MS analysis of gelonin and GAP31 exhibited at least three different post-translational modified forms. A standard plant paucidomannosidic N-glycosylation pattern (GlcNAc2Man2-5Xyl0-1 and GlcNAc2Man6-12Fuc1-2Xyl0-2) was identified using electrospray ionization MS for gelonin on N196 and GAP31 on N189, respectively. Based on these results, both proteins are located in the vacuoles of Gelonium multiflorum seeds.
The scientific intention of this work was to synthesize and characterize new bidentate, tridentate and multidentate ligands and to apply them in heterogenous catalysis. For each type of the ligands, new methods of synthesis were developed. Starting from 1,1'-(pyridine-2,6-diyl)diethanone and dimethylpyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate different bispyrazolpyridines were
synthesized and novel ruthenium complexes of the type (L)(NNN)RuCl2 could be obtained. The complexes with L = triphenylphosphine turned out to be highly efficient
catalyst precursors for the transfer hydrogenation of aromatic ketones. Introduction of a butyl group in the 5-positions of the pyrazoles leads to a pronounced increase of catalytic activity.
To find a method for the synthesis of bispyrimidinepyridines, different reactants and condition were applied and it was found that these tridentate ligands can be obtained by mixing and grinding the tetraketone with guanidinium carbonate and silica, which plays the role of a catalyst in this ring closing reaction.
The bidentate 2-amino-4-(2-pyridinyl)pyrimidines were synthesized from different substrates according to the desired substituent on the pyrimidine ring.
Reacting these bidentate ligands with the ruthenium(II) precursor [(η6-cymene)Ru(Cl)(μ
2-Cl)]2 gave cationic ruthenium(II) complexes of the type [(η6-cymene)Ru(Cl)(adpm)]Cl (adpm = chelating 2-amino-4-(2-yridinyl)pyrimidine ligand). Stirring the freshly prepared complexes with either NaBPh4, NaBF4 or KPF6, the chloride anion was exchanged against other coordinating anions (BF4-, PF6-, BPh4-).Some of these ruthenium complexes have shown very special activities in the transfer hydrogenation of ketones by reacting them in the absence of the base. This led to detailed investigations on the mechanism of this reaction. According to the activities and with the help
of ESI-MS experiments and DFT calculations, a mechanism was proposed for the transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone in the absence of the base. It shows that in the absence of the base, a C-H bond activation at the pyrimidine ring should occur to activate the catalyst.
The palladium complexes of bidentate N,N ligands were examined in coupling reactions. As expected, they did not show very special activities.
Multidentate ligands, having pyrimidine groups as relatively soft donors for late transition metals and simultaneously possessing a binding position for a hard Lewis-acid, could be obtained using the new synthesized bidentate and tridentate ligands.
Mechanisms underlying the biological effects of coffee and its constituents are incompletely understood. Many effects have been attributed solely to caffeine, neglecting that coffee is a mixture of many chemical substances. Some authors suggest that the main mechanism of action of caffeine is to antagonize adenosine receptors (AR); a second effect is the inhibition of phosphodiesterases with the subsequent accumulation of cAMP and an intensification of the effects of catecholamines. Although the inhibition of phosphodiesterases may contribute to the actions of caffeine, there is growing evidence that most pharmacological effects of this xanthine result from antagonism of AR.
One of the main objectives of this work was to investigate whether substances other than caffeine in coffee may influence the homeostasis of intracellular cyclic nucleotides in vitro and in vivo. The influence of selected coffee compounds, extracts and brews on key elements involved in the adenosine receptor-mediated signaling pathway have been investigated.
A further aim of this work was also to determine if coffee or some coffee constituents may have a stimulatory effect on the cellular heme oxygenase activity (HO-activity). Two coffee extracts, a slightly (AB1) and an intensively roasted coffee (AB2), were studied along with selected individual compounds. Caffeine and low substituted pyrazines showed no effect on the HO-activity, while NMP, pyrazines with a greater substitution pattern such as Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and 2-Ethyl-3,5(6)-dimethylpyrazine (2-E-3,5-DMP) and both coffee extracts significantly induced the HO-activity in liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), intestinal colo-rectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and in some instances in monocytic leukemia (MM6) cells.
It was found that caffeine, theophylline, coffee extracts from conventional or functional coffees, pyrazines (2,3-DE-6-MP, 2-Isobutyl-3-methoxyP), 5-CQA and caffeic acid all significantly inhibited the basal cytoplasmatic PDE activity in lysates of lung tumour xenograft cells (LXFL529L) and human platelets. To a somewhat lesser extent, PDE inhibition was also found in experiments performed with paraxanthine and other pyrazines (2-E-3,5-DMP, TMP and 2-E-5-MP). Thus the degree of roasting has a considerable impact on constituents of influence for PDE activity. Caffeine, coffee polyphenols and some pyrazines and further, as yet unknown roasting products appear to represent the main modulating constituents.
In two coffee intervention studies, a short-term (8 weeks) and a long-term study (24 weeks), comprising 8 and 84 healthy volunteers respectively, we examined extracellular key elements of the adenosine pathway including plasma adenosine levels and adenosine deaminase activity. Additionally, we studied the intracellular cAMP concentration and the PDE activity in platelets as surrogate biomarkers of adipocytes.
Results of in vitro experiments had suggested that the concentrations of caffeine and coffee extracts required to obtain a half maximal inhibition were in the upper range of physiological conditions. Yet, it was demonstrated for the first time in vivo that moderate consumption of coffee can modulate the activity of platelet phosphodiesterases in humans in long and short term. In both studies, the first exposure to coffee showed a strong inhibition (p<0.001) of the PDE activity in the platelet lysates of the participants while the second coffee phase showed no or a slight effect when compared with the first coffee intervention.
In both studies a significant increase (p<0.001) in intraplatelet cAMP concentrations during the wash-out phase (after the first coffee phase) was observed. This response could be due to inhibition of the PDE activity in the previously phase extending in to the wash out phase. However, the behavior of cAMP in the following study phases cannot be easily explained. It may be hypothesized that this effect is attributable to adaptive effects to allow PDE inhibition. One possibility is the modulation of the expression of membrane-bound adenosine receptors in platelet precursors, which still have a nucleus. This may potentially influence adenylate cyclase activity in mature platelets. For the observed effects, in addition to caffeine other ingredients of coffee appear to play a role. The findings suggest that monitoring of cAMP homeostasis in platelets is not a useful surrogate biomarker for effects in other tissues.
Neither the activity of adenosine deaminase nor the adenosine concentrations in plasma were markedly modulated by the coffee consumption in both trials. This may reflect the fact that adenosine is subject to quick and effective enzymatic turnover by phosphorylation (adenosine kinase) or deamination (adenosine deaminase) allowing keep its concentration within a well balanced homeostasis. However, it is also well known, that considerable variability exists in the responses to coffee drinking. In part, such variability is due to caffeine tolerance, but there is also evidence for a genetic background.
Altogether the data reported here provide further evidence for the perception that coffee consumption is associated with beneficial health effects demonstrated for the cAMP enhancement in platelets, known to counteract platelet aggregation. The effects observed for the influence of cellular heme oxygenase (HO) are in line with the well documented antioxidative activity of coffee and its constituents.
In the 1st project, successful development of 2nd generation of a palladium catalyst for the selective hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to aldehydes was accomplished. This project was done in cooperation with Dipl. Chem. Thomas Fett from Boeringer Ingelheim, Austria. The new catalyst is highly effective for the conversion of diversely functionalized aromatic, heteroaromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding aldehydes in the presence of pivalic anhydride at 5 bar hydrogen pressure, which was otherwise achieved either at 30 bar of hydrogen pressure or by using waste intensive hypophosphite bases as reducing agent. Our method has increased the synthetic importance of this valuable transformation. Selective hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to the corresponding aldehydes is now possible with industrial hydrogenation equipment as well as laboratory scale glass autoclaves. It might also convince the synthetic organic chemists to use this transformation for routine aldehyde synthesis in the laboratories.
In the 2nd project, a microwave assisted Cu-catalyzed protodecarboxylation of arenecarboxylic acids to arenes is achieved. This work was done in collaboration with Dipl. Chem. Filipe Manjolinho under the supervision of Dr. Nuria Rodríguez. In the presence of 1-5 mol% of inexpensive CuI/1,10-phenanthroline catalyst generated in situ under microwave radiations, diversely functionalized arenes and heteroarene carboxylic acids have been decarboxylated to the corresponding arenes in good yields at 190 °C in 5-15 min. The loss of volatile arenes with the release of CO2 is controled by the use of sealed high pressure resistant microwave vessels. These reactions are highly beneficial for parallel synthesis in drug discovery due to their short reaction time. Microwave technology will also help in the future to develop more effective catalysts for protodecarboxylation rections.
Based on the microwave assisted protodecarboxylation strategy, decarboxylative coupling of arenecarboxylic acids with aryl triflates and tosylates was also conducted under microwave radiation which provided higher yields of the corresponding biphenyls from deactivated substrates in short reaction time compared to the conventional heating.
In the 3rd project, crystalline, potassium (trifluoromethyl)trimethoxyborate was successfully applied for the synthesis of benzotrifluorides under the oxidative conditions. This project was done in cooperation with Dipl. Chem. Annette Buba. In the presence of Cu(OAc)2 and molecular oxygen, arylboronates were coupled with K+[CF3B(OMe)3] in DMSO at 60 °C. A variety of benzotriflurides was synthesized in good yields under the optimized reaction conditions. This protocol for the oxidative trifluoromethylation of arylboronates is the base for the development of decarboxylative trifluoromethylation reaction of arenecarboxylic acids.
The 4th project discloses the simple and straightforward synthesis of trifluoromethylated alcohols by nucleophilic addition of potassium (trifluoromethyl)trimethoxyborate to carbonyl compounds. This project was done in cooperation with Dr. Thomas Knauber and Dipl. Chem. Annette Buba. In the presence of K+[CF3B(OMe)3] in THF at 60 °C, diversely functionalized aldehydes and ketones were successfully converted into the corresponding trifluoromethylated alcohols.
The 3rd and 4th projects demonstrate the successful establishment of crystalline and shelf stable potassium (trifluoromethyl)trimethoxyborate as highly versatile CF3-source in nucleophilic trifluoromethylation reactions. These new protocols are characterized by their user-friendliness and broad applicability under mild reaction conditions, thus they are beneficial for late stage introduction of CF3-group into organic molecules.