This research work focuses on the generation of a high resolution digital surface model featuring complex urban surface characteristics in order to enrich the database for runoff simulations of urban drainage systems. The discussion of global climate change and its possible consequences have taken centre stage over the last decade. Global climate change has triggered more erratic weather patterns by causing severe and unpredictable rainfall events in many parts of the world. The incidence of more frequent rainfall has led to the problem of increased flooding in urban areas. The increased property values of urban structures and threats to people's personal safety have hastened the demand for a detailed urban drainage simulation model for accurate flood prediction. Although the use of 2D hydraulic modelling approach in rural floodplains is in practice for quite a long time, the use of the same approach in urban floodplains is still in its infancy. The reason is mainly due to the lack of a high resolution topographic model describing urban surface characteristics properly.
High resolution surface data describing hydrologic and hydraulic properties of complex urban areas are the prerequisite to more accurately describing and simulating the flood water movement and thereby taking adequate measures against urban flooding. Airborne LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) is an efficient way of generating a high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM) of any study area. The processing of high-density and large volume of unstructured LiDAR data is a difficult and time-consuming task towards generating fine resolution spatial databases when considering only human intervention. The application of robust algorithms in terms of processing this massive volume of data can significantly reduce the data processing time and thereby increase the degree of automation as well as accuracy.
This research work presents a number of techniques pertaining to processing, filtering and classification of LiDAR point data in order to achieve higher degree of automation and accuracy towards generating a high resolution urban surface model. This research work also describes the use of ancillary datasets such as aerial images and topographic maps in combination with LiDAR data for feature detection and surface characterization. The integration of various data sources facilitates detailed modelling of street networks and accurate detection of various urban surface types (e.g. grasslands, bare soil and impervious surfaces).
While the accurate characterization of various surface types contributes to the better modelling of rainfall runoff processes, the application of LiDAR-derived fine resolution DSM serves as input to 2D hydraulic models and capable of simulating surface flooding scenarios in cases the sewer systems are surcharged.
Thus, this research work develops high resolution spatial databases aiming at improving the accuracy of hydrologic and hydraulic databases of urban drainage systems. Later, these databases are given as input to a standard flood simulation software in order to: 1) test the suitability of the databases for running the simulation; 2) assess the performance of the hydraulic capacity of urban drainage systems and 3) predict and visualize the surface flooding scenarios in order to take necessary flood protection measures.
This dissertation focuses on the evaluation of technical and environmental sustainability of water distribution systems based on scenario analysis. The decision support system is created to assist in the decision making-process and to visualize the results of the sustainability assessment for current and future populations and scenarios. First, a methodology is developed to assess the technical and environmental sustainability for the current and future water distribution system scenarios. Then, scenarios are produced to evaluate alternative solutions for the current water distribution system as well as future populations and water demand variations. Finally, a decision support system is proposed using a combination of several visualization approaches to increase the data readability and robustness for the sustainability evaluations of the water distribution system.
The technical sustainability of a water distribution system is measured using the sustainability index methodology which is based on the reliability, resiliency and vulnerability performance criteria. Hydraulic efficiency and water quality requirements are represented using the nodal pressure and water age parameters, respectively. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPANET software is used to simulate hydraulic (i.e. nodal pressure) and water quality (i.e. water age) analysis in a case study. In addition, the environmental sustainability of a water network is evaluated using the “total fresh water use” and “total energy intensity” indicators. For each scenario, multi-criteria decision analysis is used to combine technical and environmental sustainability criteria for the study area.
The technical and environmental sustainability assessment methodology is first applied to the baseline scenario (i.e. the current water distribution system). Critical locations where hydraulic efficiency and water quality problems occur in the current system are identified. There are two major scenario options that are considered to increase the sustainability at these critical locations. These scenarios focus on creating alternative systems in order to test and verify the technical and environmental sustainability methodology rather than obtaining the best solution for the current and future water distribution systems. The first scenario is a traditional approach in order to increase the hydraulic efficiency and water quality. This scenario includes using additional network components such as booster pumps, valves etc. The second scenario is based on using reclaimed water supply to meet the non-potable water demand and fire flow. The fire flow simulation is specifically included in the sustainability assessment since regulations have significant impact on the urban water infrastructure design. Eliminating the fire flow need from potable water distribution systems would assist in saving fresh water resources as well as to reduce detention times.
The decision support system is created to visualize the results of each scenario and to effectively compare these results with each other. The EPANET software is a powerful tool used to conduct hydraulic and water quality analysis but for the decision support system purposes the visualization capabilities are limited. Therefore, in this dissertation, the hydraulic and water quality simulations are completed using EPANET software and the results for each scenario are visualized by combining several visualization techniques in order to provide a better data readability. The first technique introduced here is using small multiple maps instead of the animation technique to visualize the nodal pressure and water age parameters. This technique eliminates the change blindness and provides easy comparison of time steps. In addition, a procedure is proposed to aggregate the nodes along the edges in order to simplify the water network. A circle view technique is used to visualize two values of a single parameter (i.e. the nodal pressure or water age). The third approach is based on fitting the water network into a grid representation which assists in eliminating the irregular geographic distribution of the nodes and improves the visibility of each circle view. Finally, a prototype for an interactive decision support tool is proposed for the current population and water demand scenarios. Interactive tools enable analyzing of the aggregated nodes and provide information about the results of each of the current water distribution scenarios.
Wetlands are special areas that they offer habitat for terrestrial and water life. Wetlands are nest sides also for amphibian, for this reason wetlands offer wide range diversity for species. Wetlands are also reproduction regions for birds. Wetlands have special importance for ecosystem because they obstruct erosion. Wetlands absorb contaminants from water therefore wetlands contribute to clean water and they offer more potable water. Wetlands obstruct waterflood. In that case wetlands must be maintained and conserved. Wetlands must be conserved because wetlands vanish very rapidly because of contamination, excessively agriculture, urban sprawl, dams…etc. this PhD thesis contributes to solve problems of wetlands that they are affected from urbanization especially metropolitan areas. Growth of cities requires more land for settlements; the more settlements bring about the more urban sprawl. The more urban sprawl deteriorates more natural regions. In this cycle wetlands are also affected from urbanization effects. In this sense some precautions should be developed in order to protect wetlands from urbanization effect. These precautions should include anticipation about effects of urbanization. An important tool for conserving wetlands and protecting these regions from cities is land uses and land use planning in city and regional planning. First step of land use planning is determination of settlement appropriateness. Settlement appropriateness contributes to choose correct locations for settlement in this respect wetlands can be affected in minimum level from urban sprawl. This PhD thesis inquires a method about buffer zones around wetlands and Thresholds in basin of wetlands; and this method is examined in two case study areas Mogan and Büyükçekmece Lake. According to results of Mogan and Büyükçekmece Lake the PhD method will be generalized to other quasi wetlands that they exist near cities and are affected from urban sprawl.
In the Iranian public media, it was widely reported that by the end of 2004, 380 hectares of the eastern farthest end of the Peninsula Mianqala (northern part of Iran, located in the southeastern coasts of Caspian Sea) were sold to an organisation – the result is that "Asurada" Island will be turned into a so-called “Tourist Village”. The decision has been made and civil works are to begin. The village planned as a new settlement is specifically considered to work with Mianqala, which since June 1976 is an international biosphere reserve and since 1969, an Iranian nature protected area. Considering the special condition of the region as a biosphere reserve, this paper introduces the current situation of the Island Āŝūrāda and the suggested program by the aforementioned organisation. Subsequently, it tries to find an optimal answer to the question of whether "Āŝūrāda" is appropriate for such a purpose and how far it is allowed to be interfered with, through this new settlement. The paper asserts for this development, there is consideration of the settlement’s urban and architectural concept; subsequently analysis is conducted for the spatial development of the settlement, in terms of its influences on the ecological sources, the rural structure and the financial as well as social aspects. Such study is required, particularly due to the chain of tourist influences, which certainly will introduce a new pattern of urban character in terms of quality and quantity. Finally, with the assistance of the case presented, this paper poses the question of whether a new urban pattern like this can endanger a traditional and above all a nature protected context or not.
This Essay considers the motives and the formation of European New Towns, in particular German ones. For this reason it studies basically the development of German New towns, further defines the German classification of this urban term. This essay suggests additionally for this sense a kind of classification in Germany – considering to periodical as well as formal progress of German New towns. All suggested classes are specifically and individually recognized and introduced, for each one is also given specific examples. Each case is furthermore introduced and it’s motive of formation and development are considered as well, e.g. cities like Ludwigshafen, Hellerau, Wolfsburg, Wulfen. Regarding to the development of German New Towns and up to the given facts in the essay, the current and the expected situation of German New towns are finally considered, also the sense of German experiences for Iranian New towns, and it’s possible significance for them.
Inappropriate speed is the most common reason for road traffic accidents world wide. Thus, a necessity for speed management exists. The so-called SUNflower states Sweden, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands - each spending strong effort in traffic safety policies - have great success in reducing mean road speeds and speed variances through speed management. However, the effect is still insufficient for gaining real traffic safety. Thus, there is a discussion to make use of technical in-vehicle devices. One of these technologies called Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) reduces vehicle speeds. This is done either by warning the driver that he is speeding, or activating the accelerator pedal with a counterforce, or reducing the gasoline supply to the motor. The three ways of reducing the speed are called version 1-3. The EC-project for research on speed adaptation policies on European roads (PROSPER) deals with strategic proposals for the implementation of the different ISA-versions. This thesis includes selected results of PROSPER. In this thesis two empiric surveys were done in order to give an overview about the basic conditions (e.g. social, economic, technical aspects) for an ISA implementation in Germany. On one hand, a stakeholder analysis and questionnaire using the Delphi-method has been accomplished in two rounds. On the other hand, a questionnaire with speed offenders has been accomplished, too, in two rounds. In addition, the author created an expert pool consisting of 23 experts representing the most important fields of science and practice in which ISA is involved. The author made phone or personal interviews with most of the experts. 12 experts also produced a detailed publication on their professional point of view towards ISA. The two surveys and the professional comments on ISA led to four possible implementation scenarios for ISA in Germany. However, due to a strong political opposition against ISA it is also thinkable that ISA is not implemented or the implementation process starts after 2015 (i.e. outside the aimed period of time). The scenarios are as follows: A) Implementation of version 1 by market forces with governmental subventions. B) Implementation of version 2 by market forces supported by traffic safety institutions and image-making processes. C) Implementation of a modified version 3 by law for speed offenders instead of cancellation of the driving licence. D) Implementation of various versions in Germany because of a broad implementation of ISA in the SUNflower states. X) Non-implementation of ISA leads to the necessity of alternative speed management measures. The author prefers scenario B because - ceteris paribus - it seems to be the most likely way to implement the technology. As soon as ISA reaches technical maturity, the implementation process has to be accomplished in three steps. 1) Marketing and image making 2) Margin introduction 3) Market penetration This implementation process for ISA by market forces could effect a percentage of at least 15% of all vehicles equipped with ISA before the year 2015.
Urban Design Guidelines have been used in Jakarta for controlling the form of the built environment. This planning instrument has been implemented in several central city redevelopment projects particularly in superblock areas. The instrument has gained popularity and implemented in new development and conservation areas as well. Despite its popularity, there is no formal literature on the Indonesian Urban Design Guideline that systematically explain its contents, structure and the formulation process. This dissertation attempts to explain the substantive of urban design guideline and the way to control its implementation. Various streams of urban design theories are presented and evaluated in term of their suitability for attaining a high urbanistic quality in major Indonesian cities. The explanation on the form and the practical application of this planning instrument is elaborated in a comparative investigation of similar instrument in other countries; namely the USA, Britain and Germany. A case study of a superblock development in Jakarta demonstrates the application of the urban design theories and guideline. Currently, the role of computer in the process of formulating the urban design guideline in Indonesia is merely as a replacement of the manual method, particularly in areas of worksheet calculation and design presentation. Further support of computer for urban planning and design tasks has been researched in developed countries, which shows its potential in supporting decision-making process, enabling public participation, team collaboration, documentation and publication of urban design decisions and so on. It is hoped that the computer usage in Indonesian urban design process can catch up with the global trend of multimedia, networking (Internet/Intranet) and interactive functions that is presented with examples from developed countries.