## 47A52 Ill-posed problems, regularization [See also 35R25, 47J06, 65F22, 65J20, 65L08, 65M30, 65R30]

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#### Document Type

- Diploma Thesis (1)
- Doctoral Thesis (1)

#### Keywords

- Boundary Value Problem / Oblique Derivative (1)
- Gravitationsfeld (1)
- Inverse Problem (1)
- Inverse Problems (1)
- Inverses Problem (1)
- Multiplicative Schwarz Algorithm (1)
- Randwertproblem / Schiefe Ableitung (1)
- Regularisierung (1)
- Regularisierung / Stoppkriterium (1)
- Regularization / Stop criterion (1)

Nowadays one of the major objectives in geosciences is the determination of the gravitational field of our planet, the Earth. A precise knowledge of this quantity is not just interesting on its own but it is indeed a key point for a vast number of applications. The important question is how to obtain a good model for the gravitational field on a global scale. The only applicable solution - both in costs and data coverage - is the usage of satellite data. We concentrate on highly precise measurements which will be obtained by GOCE (Gravity Field and Steady State Ocean Circulation Explorer, launch expected 2006). This satellite has a gradiometer onboard which returns the second derivatives of the gravitational potential. Mathematically seen we have to deal with several obstacles. The first one is that the noise in the different components of these second derivatives differs over several orders of magnitude, i.e. a straightforward solution of this outer boundary value problem will not work properly. Furthermore we are not interested in the data at satellite height but we want to know the field at the Earth's surface, thus we need a regularization (downward-continuation) of the data. These two problems are tackled in the thesis and are now described briefly. Split Operators: We have to solve an outer boundary value problem at the height of the satellite track. Classically one can handle first order side conditions which are not tangential to the surface and second derivatives pointing in the radial direction employing integral and pseudo differential equation methods. We present a different approach: We classify all first and purely second order operators which fulfill that a harmonic function stays harmonic under their application. This task is done by using modern algebraic methods for solving systems of partial differential equations symbolically. Now we can look at the problem with oblique side conditions as if we had ordinary i.e. non-derived side conditions. The only additional work which has to be done is an inversion of the differential operator, i.e. integration. In particular we are capable to deal with derivatives which are tangential to the boundary. Auto-Regularization: The second obstacle is finding a proper regularization procedure. This is complicated by the fact that we are facing stochastic rather than deterministic noise. The main question is how to find an optimal regularization parameter which is impossible without any additional knowledge. However we could show that with a very limited number of additional information, which are obtainable also in practice, we can regularize in an asymptotically optimal way. In particular we showed that the knowledge of two input data sets allows an order optimal regularization procedure even under the hard conditions of Gaussian white noise and an exponentially ill-posed problem. A last but rather simple task is combining data from different derivatives which can be done by a weighted least squares approach using the information we obtained out of the regularization procedure. A practical application to the downward-continuation problem for simulated gravitational data is shown.

Satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) and satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG), respectively, are two measurement principles in modern satellite geodesy which yield knowledge of the first and second order radial derivative of the earth's gravitational potential at satellite altitude, respectively. A numerical method to compute the gravitational potential on the earth's surface from those observations should be capable of processing huge amounts of observational data. Moreover, it should yield a reconstruction of the gravitational potential at different levels of detail, and it should be possible to reconstruct the gravitational potential from only locally given data. SST and SGG are modeled as ill-posed linear pseudodifferential operator equations with an injective but non-surjective compact operator, which operates between Sobolev spaces of harmonic functions and such ones consisting of their first and second order radial derivatives, respectively. An immediate discretization of the operator equation is obtained by replacing the signal on its right-hand-side either by an interpolating or a smoothing spline which approximates the observational data. Here the noise level and the spatial distribution of the data determine whether spline-interpolation or spline-smoothing is appropriate. The large full linear equation system with positive definite matrix which occurs in the spline-interplation and spline-smoothing problem, respectively, is efficiently solved with the help of the Schwarz alternating algorithm, a domain decomposition method which allows it to split the large linear equation system into several smaller ones which are then solved alernatingly in an iterative procedure. Strongly space-localizing regularization scaling functions and wavelets are used to obtain a multiscale reconstruction of the gravitational potential on the earth's surface. In a numerical experiment the advocated method is successfully applied to reconstruct the earth's gravitational potential from simulated 'exact' and 'error-affected' SGG data on a spherical orbit, using Tikhonov regularization. The applicability of the numerical method is, however, not restricted to data given on a closed orbit but it can also cope with realistic satellite data.