- Heuristics for the K-Cardinality Tree and Subgraph Problems (1996)
- In this paper we consider the problem of finding in a given graph a minimal weight subtree of connected subgraph, which has a given number of edges. These NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems have various applications in the oil industry, in facility layout and graph partitioning. We will present different heuristic approaches based on spanning tree and shortest path methods and on an exact algorithm solving the problem in polynomial time if the underlying graph is a tree. Both the edge- and node weighted case are investigated and extensive numerical results on the behaviour of the heuristics compared to optimal solutions are presented. The best heuristic yielded results within an error margin of less than one percent from optimality for most cases. In a large percentage of tests even optimal solutions have been found.
- Multicriteria Optimization (1999)
- Life is about decisions. Decisions, no matter if taken by a group or an individual, involve several conflicting objectives. The observation that real world problems have to be solved optimally according to criteria, which prohibit an "ideal" solution - optimal for each decisionmaker under each of the criteria considered - , has led to the development of multicriteria optimization. From its first roots, which where laid by Pareto at the end of the 19th century the discilpine has prospered and grown, especially during the last three decades. Today, many decision support systems incorporate methods to deal with conflicting objectives. The foundation for such systems is a mathematical theory of optimaztion under multiple objectives. With this manuscript, which is based on lectures I taught in the winter semester 1998/99 at the University of Kaiserslautern, I intend to give an introduction to and overview of this fascinating field of mathematics. I tried to present theoretical questions such as existence of solutions as well as methodological issues and hope the reader finds the balance not too heavily on one side. The interested reader should be able to find classical results as well as up to date research. The text is accompanied by exercises, which hopefully help to deepen students' understanding of the topic.
- A Fuzzy Programming Approach to Multicriteria Facility Location Problems (1999)
- Facility Location Problems are concerned with the optimal location of one or several new facilities, with respect to a set of existing ones. The objectives involve the distance between new and existing facilities, usually a weighted sum or weighted maximum. Since the various stakeholders (decision makers) will have different opinions of the importance of the existing facilities, a multicriteria problem with several sets of weights, and thus several objectives, arises. In our approach, we assume the decision makers to make only fuzzy comparisons of the different existing facilities. A geometric mean method is used to obtain the fuzzy weights for each facility and each decision maker. The resulting multicriteria facility location problem is solved using fuzzy techniques again. We prove that the final compromise solution is weakly Pareto optimal and Pareto optimal, if it is unique, or under certain assumptions on the estimates of the Nadir point. A numerical example is considered to illustrate the methodology.
- The Balance Space Approach to Multicriteria Decision Making - Involving the Decision Maker (2000)
- The balance space approach (introduced by Galperin in 1990) provides a new view on multicriteria optimization. Looking at deviations from global optimality of the different objectives, balance points and balance numbers are defined when either different or equal deviations for each objective are allowed. Apportioned balance numbers allow the specification of proportions among the deviations. Through this concept the decision maker can be involved in the decision process. In this paper we prove that the apportioned balance number can be formulated by a min-max operator. Furthermore we prove some relations between apportioned balance numbers and the balance set, and see the representation of balance numbers in the balance set. The main results are necessary and sufficient conditions for the balance set to be exhaustive, which means that by multiplying a vector of weights (proportions of deviation) with its corresponding apportioned balance number a balance point is attained. The results are used to formulate an interactive procedure for multicriteria optimization. All results are illustrated by examples.
- Nadir Values: Computation and Use in Compromise Programming (2000)
- In this paper we investigate the problem offending the Nadir point for multicriteria optimization problems (MOP). The Nadir point is characterized by the component wise maximal values of efficient points for (MOP). It can be easily computed in the bicriteria case. However, in general this problem is very difficult. We review some existing methods and heuristics and propose some new ones. We propose a general method to compute Nadir values for the case of three objectives, based on theoretical results valid for any number of criteria. We also investigate the use of the Nadir point for compromise programming, when the goal is to be as far away as possible from the worst outcomes. We prove some results about (weak) Pareto optimality of the resulting solutions. The results are illustrated by examples.
- On the Number of Criteria Needed to Decide Pareto Optimality (2000)
- In this paper we address the question of how many objective functions are needed to decide whether a given point is a Pareto optimal solution for a multicriteria optimization problem. We extend earlier results showing that the set of weakly Pareto optimal points is the union of Pareto optimal sets of subproblems and show their limitations. We prove that for strictly quasi-convex problems in two variables Pareto optimality can be decided by consideration of at most three objectives at a time. Our results are based on a geometric characterization of Pareto, strict Pareto and weak Pareto solutions and Helly's Theorem. We also show that a generalization to quasi-convex objectives is not possible, and state a weaker result for this case. Furthermore, we show that a generalization to strictly Pareto optimal solutions is impossible, even in the convex case.
- An Annotated Bibliography of Multiobjective Combinatorial Optimization (2000)
- This paper provides an annotated bibliography of multiple objective combinatorial optimization, MOCO. We present a general formulation of MOCO problems, describe the main characteristics of MOCO problems, and review the main properties and theoretical results for these problems. One section is devoted to a brief description of the available solution methodology, both exact and heuristic. The main part of the paper is devoted to an annotation of the existing literature in the field organized problem by problem. We conclude the paper by stating open questions and areas of future research. The list of references comprises more than 350 entries.
- Some Complexity Results for k-Cardinality Minimum Cut Problems (2000)
- Many polynomially solvable combinatorial optimization problems (COP) become NP when we require solutions to satisfy an additional cardinality constraint. This family of problems has been considered only recently. We study a newproblem of this family: the k-cardinality minimum cut problem. Given an undirected edge-weighted graph the k-cardinality minimum cut problem is to find a partition of the vertex set V in two sets V 1 , V 2 such that the number of the edges between V 1 and V 2 is exactly k and the sum of the weights of these edges is minimal. A variant of this problem is the k-cardinality minimum s-t cut problem where s and t are fixed vertices and we have the additional request that s belongs to V 1 and t belongs to V 2 . We also consider other variants where the number of edges of the cut is constrained to be either less or greater than k. For all these problems we show complexity results in the most significant graph classes.
- Standortplanung im Mathematikunterricht (2001)
- Fragestellungen der Standortplanung sollen den Mathematikunterricht der Schule bereichern, dort behandelt und gelöst werden. In dieser Arbeit werden planare Standortprobleme vorgestellt, die im Mathematikunterricht behandelt werden können. Die Probleme Produktion von Halbleiterplatinen, Planung eines Feuerwehrhauses und das Zentrallagerproblem, die ausnahmlos real und nicht konstruiert sind, werden ausführlich durchgearbeitet, so dass es schnell möglich ist, daraus Unterrichtseinheiten zu entwickeln.