- Low Discrepancy Methods for the Boltzmann Equation (1988)
- As an alternative to the commonly used Monte Carlo Simulation methods for solving the Boltzmann equation we have developed a new code with certain important improvements. We present results of calculations on the reentry phase of a space shuttle. One aim was to test physical models of internal energies and of gas-surface interactions.
- Computational Methods for the Boltzmann Equation (1990)
- This paper contains the basic ideas and practical aspects for numerical methods for solving the Boltzmann Equation. The main field of application considered is the reentry of a Space Shuttle in the transition from free molecular flow to continuum flow. The method used will be called Finite Pointset Method (FPM) approximating the solution by finite sets of particles in a rigorously defined way. Convergence results are cited while practical aspects of the algorithm are emphasized. Ideas for the transition to the Navier Stokes domain are shortly discussed.
- Several Computer Studies on Boltzmann Flows in Connection with Space Flight Problems (1990)
- This report contains the following three papers about computations of rarefied gas flows:; ; a) Rarefied gas flow around a disc with different angles of attack, published in the proceedings of the 17th RGD Symposium, Aachen, 1990.; ; b) Hypersonic flow calculations around a 3D-deltawing at low Knudsen numbers, published in the proceedings of the 17th RGD Symposium,; Aachen, 1990.; ; c) Rarefied gas flow around a 3D-deltawing, published in the proceedings of the Workshop on Hypersonic Flows for Reentry Problems,; Part 1, Antibes, France, January 22-25, 1990.; ; All computations are part of the HERMES Research and Development Program.
- On the Efficiency of Simulation Methods for the Boltzmann Equation on Parallel Computers (1991)
- The paper presents a parallelization technique for the finite pointset method, a numerical method for rarefied gas flows.; First we give a short introduction to the Boltzmann equation, which describes the behaviour of rarefied gas flows. The basic ideas of the finite pointset method are presented and a strategy to parallelize the algorithm will be explained. It is shown that a static processor partition leads to an insufficient load-balance of the processors. Therefore an optimized parallelization technique based on an adaptive processor partition will be introduced, which improves the efficiency of the simulation code over the whole region of interesting flow situation. Finally we present a comparison of the CPU-times between a parallel computer and a vector computer.
- Boltzmann Simulations with Axisymmetric Geometry (1992)
- The paper presents theoretical and numerical investigations on simulation methods for the Boltzmann equation with axisymmetric geometry. The main task is to reduce the computational effort by taking advantage of the symmetry in the solution of the Boltzmann equation.; The reduction automatically leads to the concept of weighting functions for the radial space coordinate and therefore to a modified Boltzmann equation. Consequently the classical simulation methods have to be modified according to the new equation.; The numerical results shown in this paper - rarefied gas flows around a body with axisymmetric geometry - were done in the framework of the European space project HERMES.
- A Comparison of Simulation Methods for Rarefied Gas Flows (1993)
- Simulation methods like DSMC are an efficient tool to compute rarefied gas flows. Using supercomputers it is possible to include various real gas effects like vibrational energies or chemical reactions in a gas mixture. Nevertheless it is still necessary to improve the accuracy of the current simulation methods in order to reduce the computational effort. To support this task the paper presents a comparison of the classical DSMC method with the so called finite Pointset Method. This new approach was developed during several years in the framework of the European space project HERMES. The comparison given in the paper is based on two different testcases: a spatially homogeneous relaxation problem and a 2-dimensional axisymmetric flow problem at high Mach numbers.
- Fast Generation of Low-Discrepancy Sequences (1993)
- The paper presents a fast implementation of a constructive method to generate a special class of low-discrepancy sequences which are based on Van Neumann-Kakutani tranformations. Such sequences can be used in various simulation codes where it is necessary to generate a certain number of uniformly distributed random numbers on the unit interval.; From a theoretical point of view the uniformity of a sequence is measured in terms of the discrepancy which is a special distance between a finite set of points and the uniform distribution on the unit interval.; Numerical results are given on the cost efficiency of different generators on different hardware architectures as well as on the corresponding uniformity of the sequences. As an example for the efficient use of low-discrepancy sequences in a complex simulation code results are presented for the simulation of a hypersonic rarefied gas flow.
- A Finite - Volume Particle Method for CompressibleFlows (1998)
- We derive a new class of particle methods for conservation laws, which are based on numerical flux functions to model the interactions between moving particles. The derivation is similar to that of classical Finite-Volume methods; except that the fixed grid structure in the Finite-Volume method is substituted by so-called mass packets of particles. We give some numerical results on a shock wave solution for Burgers equation as well as the well-known one-dimensional shock tube problem.
- Consistency analysis of mesh-free methods for conservation laws (2000)
- Based on general partitions of unity and standard numerical flux functions, a class of mesh-free methods for conservation laws is derived. A Lax-Wendroff type consistency analysis is carried out for the general case of moving partition functions. The analysis leads to a set of conditions which are checked for the finite volume particle method FVPM. As a by-product, classical finite volume schemes are recovered in the approach for special choices of the partition of unity.