### Refine

#### Keywords

We present a unified approach of several boundary conditions for lattice Boltzmann models. Its general framework is a generalization of previously introduced schemes such as the bounce-back rule, linear or quadratic interpolations, etc. The objectives are two fold: first to give theoretical tools to study the existing boundary conditions and their corresponding accuracy; secondly to design formally third- order accurate boundary conditions for general flows. Using these boundary conditions, Couette and Poiseuille flows are exact solution of the lattice Boltzmann models for a Reynolds number Re = 0 (Stokes limit). Numerical comparisons are given for Stokes flows in periodic arrays of spheres and cylinders, linear periodic array of cylinders between moving plates and for Navier-Stokes flows in periodic arrays of cylinders for Re < 200. These results show a significant improvement of the overall accuracy when using the linear interpolations instead of the bounce-back reflection (up to an order of magnitude on the hydrodynamics fields). Further improvement is achieved with the new multi-reflection boundary conditions, reaching a level of accuracy close to the quasi-analytical reference solutions, even for rather modest grid resolutions and few points in the narrowest channels. More important, the pressure and velocity fields in the vicinity of the obstacles are much smoother with multi-reflection than with the other boundary conditions. Finally the good stability of these schemes is highlighted by some simulations of moving obstacles: a cylinder between flat walls and a sphere in a cylinder.

Lattice Boltzmann Model for Free-Surface flow and Its Application to Filling Process in Casting
(2002)

A generalized lattice Boltzmann model to simulate free-surface is constructed in both two and three dimensions. The proposed model satisfies the interfacial boundary conditions accurately. A distinctive feature of the model is that the collision processes is carried out only on the points occupied partially or fully by the fluid. To maintain a sharp interfacial front, the method includes an anti-diffusion algorithm. The unknown distribution functions at the interfacial region are constructed according to the first order Chapman-Enskog analysis. The interfacial boundary conditions are satisfied exactly by the coefficients in the Chapman-Enskog expansion. The distribution functions are naturally expressed in the local interfacial coordinates. The macroscopic quantities at the interface are extracted from the least-square solutions of a locally linearized system obtained from the known distribution functions. The proposed method does not require any geometric front construction and is robust for any interfacial topology. Simulation results of realistic filling process are presented: rectangular cavity in two dimensions and Hammer box, Campbell box, Sheffield box, and Motorblock in three dimensions. To enhance the stability at high Reynolds numbers, various upwind-type schemes are developed. Free-slip and no-slip boundary conditions are also discussed.

Free Surface Lattice-Boltzmann Method To Model The Filling Of Expanding Cavities By Bingham Fluids
(2001)

The filling process of viscoplastic metal alloys and plastics in expanding cavities is modelled using the lattice Boltzmann method in two and three dimensions. These models combine the regularized Bingham model for viscoplastic with a free-interface algorithm. The latter is based on a modified immiscible lattice Boltzmann model in which one species is the fluid and the other one is considered as vacuum. The boundary conditions at the curved liquid-vacuum interface are met without any geometrical front reconstruction from a first-order Chapman-Enskog expansion. The numerical results obtained with these models are found in good agreement with available theoretical and numerical analysis.