Fachbereich / Organisatorische Einheit
- Fraunhofer (ITWM) (4) (entfernen)
- Inverse radiation therapy planning a multiple objective optimisation approach (1999)
- For some decades radiation therapy has been proved successful in cancer treatment. It is the major task of clinical radiation treatment planning to realise on the one hand a high level dose of radiation in the cancer tissue in order to obtain maximum tumour control. On the other hand it is obvious that it is absolutely necessary to keep in the tissue outside the tumour, particularly in organs at risk, the unavoidable radiation as low as possible. No doubt, these two objectives of treatment planning high level dose in the tumour, low radiation outside the tumour have a basically contradictory nature. Therefore, it is no surprise that inverse mathematical models with dose distribution bounds tend to be infeasible in most cases. Thus, there is need for approximations compromising between overdosing the organs at risk and underdosing the target volume. Differing from the currently used time consuming iterative approach, which measures deviation from an ideal (non-achievable) treatment plan using recursively trial-and-error weights for the organs of interest, we go a new way trying to avoid a priori weight choices and consider the treatment planning problem as a multiple objective linear programming problem: with each organ of interest, target tissue as well as organs at risk, we associate an objective function measuring the maximal deviation from the prescribed doses. We build up a data base of relatively few efficient solutions representing and approximating the variety of Pareto solutions of the multiple objective linear programming problem. This data base can be easily scanned by physicians looking for an adequate treatment plan with the aid of an appropriate online tool.
- Polyhedral Properties of the Uncapacitated Multiple Allocation Hub Location Problem (2000)
- We examine the feasibility polyhedron of the uncapacitated hub location problem (UHL) with multiple allocation, which has applications in the fields of air passenger and cargo transportation, telecommunication and postal delivery services. In particular we determine the dimension and derive some classes of facets of this polyhedron. We develop some general rules about lifting facets from the uncapacitated facility location (UFL) for UHL and projecting facets from UHL to UFL. By applying these rules we get a new class of facets for UHL which dominates the inequalities in the original formulation. Thus we get a new formulation of UHL whose constraints are all facet–defining. We show its superior computational performance by benchmarking it on a well known data set.
- Design of Zone Tariff Systems in Public Transportation (2000)
- Given a public transportation system represented by its stops and direct connections between stops, we consider two problems dealing with the prices for the customers: The fare problem in which subsets of stops are already aggregated to zones and "good" tariffs have to be found in the existing zone system. Closed form solutions for the fare problem are presented for three objective functions. In the zone problem the design of the zones is part of the problem. This problem is NP hard and we therefore propose three heuristics which prove to be very successful in the redesign of one of Germany's transportation systems
- Mathematical Modelling of Evacuation Problems: A State of Art (2001)
- This paper details models and algorithms which can be applied to evacuation problems. While it concentrates on building evacuation many of the results are applicable also to regional evacuation. All models consider the time as main parameter, where the travel time between components of the building is part of the input and the overall evacuation time is the output. The paper distinguishes between macroscopic and microscopic evacuation models both of which are able to capture the evacuees' movement over time. Macroscopic models are mainly used to produce good lower bounds for the evacuation time and do not consider any individual behavior during the emergency situation. These bounds can be used to analyze existing buildings or help in the design phase of planning a building. Macroscopic approaches which are based on dynamic network flow models (minimum cost dynamic flow, maximum dynamic flow, universal maximum flow, quickest path and quickest flow) are described. A special feature of the presented approach is the fact, that travel times of evacuees are not restricted to be constant, but may be density dependent. Using multicriteria optimization priority regions and blockage due to fire or smoke may be considered. It is shown how the modelling can be done using time parameter either as discrete or continuous parameter. Microscopic models are able to model the individual evacuee's characteristics and the interaction among evacuees which influence their movement. Due to the corresponding huge amount of data one uses simulation approaches. Some probabilistic laws for individual evacuee's movement are presented. Moreover ideas to model the evacuee's movement using cellular automata (CA) and resulting software are presented. In this paper we will focus on macroscopic models and only summarize some of the results of the microscopic approach. While most of the results are applicable to general evacuation situations, we concentrate on building evacuation.