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- Establishment and Application of Methods for the Detection of DNA and Protein Adducts from Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines and Benzo[a]pyrene (2002)
- Lung cancer, mainly caused by tobacco smoke, is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Large efforts in prevention and cessation have reduced smoking rates in the U.S. and other countries. Nevertheless, since 1990, rates have remained constant and it is believed that most of those currently smoking (~25%) are addicted to nicotine, and therefore are unable to stop smoking. An alternative strategy to reduce lung cancer mortality is the development of chemopreventive mixtures used to reduce cancer risk. Before entering clinical trails, it is crucial to know the efficacy, toxicity and the molecular mechanism by which the active compounds prevent carcinogenesis. 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are among the most carcinogenic compounds in tobacco smoke. All have been widely used as model carcinogens and their tumorigenic activities are well established. It is believed that formation of DNA adducts is a crucial step in carcinogenesis. NNK and NNN form 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone releasing and methylating adducts, while B[a]P forms B[a]P-tetraol-releasing adducts. Different isothiocyanates (ITCs) are able to prevent NNK-, NNN- or B[a]P-induced tumor formation, but relative little is know about the mechanism of these preventive effects. In this thesis, the influence of different ITCs on adduct formation from NNK plus B[a]P and NNN were evaluated. Using an A/J mouse lung tumor model, it was first shown that the formation of HPB-releasing, O6-mG and B[a]P-tetraol-releasing adducts were not affected when NNK and B[a]P were given individually or in combination, of by gavage. Using the same model, the effects of different mixtures of PEITC and BITC, given by gavage or in the diet, on DNA adduct formation were evaluated. Dietary treatment with phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) or PEITC plus benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) reduced levels of HPB-releasing adducts by 40*50%. This is consistent with a previously shown 40% inhibition of tumor multiplicity for the same treatment. In the gavage treatments with ITCs it seemed that PEITC reduced HPB-releasing DNA adducts, while levels of BITC counteracted these effects. Levels of O6-mG were minimally affected by any of the treatments. Levels of B[a]P-tetraol releasing adducts were reduced by gavaged PEITC Summary Page XII and BITC, 120 h after the last carcinogen treatment, while dietary treatment had no effects. We then extended our investigation to F-344 rats by using a similar ITC treatment protocol as in the mouse model. NNK was given in the drinking water and B[a]P in diet. Dietary PEITC reduced the formation of HPB-releasing globin and DNA adducts in lung but not in liver, while levels of B[a]P-tetraol-releasing adducts were unaffected. Additionally, the effects of PEITC, 3-phenlypropyl isothiocyanate, and their N-acetylcystein conjugates in diet on adducts from NNN in drinking water were evaluated in rat esophageal DNA and globin. Using a protocol known to inhibit NNNinduced esophageal tumorigenesis, the levels of HPB-releasing adduct levels were unaffected by the ITCs treatment. The observations that dietary PEITC inhibited the formation of HPB-releasing DNA adducts only in mice where the control levels were above 1 fmol/µg DNA and adduct levels in rat lung were reduced to levels seen in liver, lead to the conclusion that in mice and rats, there are at least two activation pathway of NNK. One is PEITC-sensitive and responsible for the high adduct levels in lung and presumably also for higher carcinogenicity of NNK in lung. The other is PEITC-insensitive and responsible for the remaining adduct levels and tumorigenicity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the preventive mechanism by which ITCs inhibit carcinogenesis is only in part due to inhibition of DNA adduct formation and that other mechanisms are involved. There is a large body of evidence indicating that induction of apoptosis may be a mechanism by which ITCs prevent tumor formation, but further studies are required.