- New urban Settlements in the ecological context (2006)
- In the Iranian public media, it was widely reported that by the end of 2004, 380 hectares of the eastern farthest end of the Peninsula Mianqala (northern part of Iran, located in the southeastern coasts of Caspian Sea) were sold to an organisation – the result is that "Asurada" Island will be turned into a so-called “Tourist Village”. The decision has been made and civil works are to begin. The village planned as a new settlement is specifically considered to work with Mianqala, which since June 1976 is an international biosphere reserve and since 1969, an Iranian nature protected area. Considering the special condition of the region as a biosphere reserve, this paper introduces the current situation of the Island Āŝūrāda and the suggested program by the aforementioned organisation. Subsequently, it tries to find an optimal answer to the question of whether "Āŝūrāda" is appropriate for such a purpose and how far it is allowed to be interfered with, through this new settlement. The paper asserts for this development, there is consideration of the settlement’s urban and architectural concept; subsequently analysis is conducted for the spatial development of the settlement, in terms of its influences on the ecological sources, the rural structure and the financial as well as social aspects. Such study is required, particularly due to the chain of tourist influences, which certainly will introduce a new pattern of urban character in terms of quality and quantity. Finally, with the assistance of the case presented, this paper poses the question of whether a new urban pattern like this can endanger a traditional and above all a nature protected context or not.
- German New Towns and some lessons for Iranian New Towns (2005)
- This Essay considers the motives and the formation of European New Towns, in particular German ones. For this reason it studies basically the development of German New towns, further defines the German classification of this urban term. This essay suggests additionally for this sense a kind of classification in Germany – considering to periodical as well as formal progress of German New towns. All suggested classes are specifically and individually recognized and introduced, for each one is also given specific examples. Each case is furthermore introduced and it’s motive of formation and development are considered as well, e.g. cities like Ludwigshafen, Hellerau, Wolfsburg, Wulfen. Regarding to the development of German New Towns and up to the given facts in the essay, the current and the expected situation of German New towns are finally considered, also the sense of German experiences for Iranian New towns, and it’s possible significance for them.