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A new approach with BRST invariance is suggested to cure the degeneracy problem of ill defined path integrals in the path- integral calculation of quantum mechanical tunneling effects in which the problem arises due to the occurrence of zero modes. The Faddeev-Popov procedure is avoided and the integral over the zero mode is transformed in a systematic way into a well defined integral over instanton positions. No special procedure has to be adopted as in the Faddeev-Popov method in calculating the Jacobian of the transformation. The quantum mechanical tunneling for the Sine-Gordon potential is used as a test of the method and the width of the lowest energy band is obtained in exact agreement with that of WKB calculations.

It is shown that nonvacuum pseudoparticles can account for quantum tunneling and metastability. In particular the saddle- point nature of the pseudoparticles is demonstrated, and the evaluation of path-integrals in their neighbourhood. Finally the relation between instantons and bounces is used to derive a result conjectured by Bogomolny and Fateyev.

2D quantum dilaton gravitational Hamiltonian, boundary terms and new definition for total energy
(1995)

The ADM and Bondi mass for the RST model have been first discussed from Hawking and Horowitz's argument. Since there is a nonlocal term in the RST model, the RST lagrangian has to be localized so that Hawking and Horowitz's proposal can be carried out. Expressing the localized RST action in terms of the ADM formulation, the RST Hamiltonian can be derived, meanwhile keeping track of all boundary terms. Then the total boundary terms can be taken as the total energy for the RST model. Our result shows that the previous expression for the ADM and Bondi mass actually needs to be modified at quantum level, but at classical level, our mass formula can be reduced to that given by Bilal and Kogan [5] and de Alwis [6]. It has been found that there is a new contribution to the ADM and Bondi mass from the RST boundary due to the existence of the hidden dynamical field. The ADM and Bondi mass with and without the RST boundary for the static and dynamical solutions have been discussed respectively in detail, and some new properties have been found. The thunderpop of the RST model has also been encountered in our new Bondi mass formula.

Abstract: It is shown that nonvacuum pseudoparticles can account forquantum tunneling and metastability. In particular the saddle-point nature of the pseudoparticles is demonstrated, and the evaluation of path-integrals in their neighbourhood. Finally the relation between instantons and bounces is used to derive a result conjectured by Bogomolny andFateyev.

A new look at the RST model
(1996)

The RST model is augmented by the addition of a scalar field and a boundary term so that it is well-posed and local. Expressing the RST action in terms of the ADM formulation, the constraint structure can be analysed completely. It is shown that from the view point of local field theories, there exists a hidden dynamical field 1 in the RST model. Thanks to the presence of this hidden dynamical field, we can reconstruct the closed algebra of the constraints which guarantee the general invariance of the RST action. The resulting stress tensors TSigma Sigma are recovered to be true tensor quantities. Especially, the part of the stress tensors for the hidden dynamical field 1 gives the precise expression for tSigma . At the quantum level, the cancellation condition for the total central charge is reexamined. Finally, with the help of the hidden dynamical field 1, the fact that the semi-classical static soluti on of the RST model has two independent parameters (P,M), whereas for the classical CGHS model there is only one, can be explained.

Significance of zero modes in path-integral quantization of solitonic theories with BRST invariance
(1996)

The significance of zero modes in the path-integral quantization of some solitonic models is investigated. In particular a Skyrme-like theory with topological vortices in (1 + 2) dimensions is studied, and with a BRST invariant gauge fixing a well defined transition amplitude is obtained in the one loop approximation. We also present an alternative method which does not necessitate evoking the time-dependence in the functional integral, but is equivalent to the original one in dealing with the quantization in the background of the static classical solution of the non-linear field equations. The considerations given here are particularly useful in - but also limited to -the one-loop approximation.

The constraint structure of the induced 2D-gravity with the Weyl and area-preserving diffeomorphism invariances is analysed in the ADM formulation. It is found that when the area-preserving diffeomorphism constraints are kept, the usual conformal gauge does not exist, whereas there is the possibility to choose the so-called "quasi-light-cone" gauge, in which besides the area-preserving diffeomorphism invariance, the reduced Lagrangian also possesses the SL(2,R) residual symmetry. This observation indicates that the claimed correspondence between the SL(2,R) residual symmetry and the area-preserving diffeomorphism invariance in both regularisation approaches does not hold. The string-like approach is then applied to quantise this model, but a fictitious non-zero central charge in the Virasoro algebra appears. When a set of gauge-independent SL(2,R) current-like fields is introduced instead of the string-like variables, a consistent quantum theory is obtained, which means that the area-preserving diffeomorphism invariance can be maintained at the quantum level.

Quantum tunneling between degenerate ground states through the central barrier of a potential is extended to excited states with the instanton method. This extension is achieved with the help of an LSZ reduction technique as in field theory and may be of importance in the study of macroscopic quantum phenomena in magnetic systems.

Starting from the coherent state representation of the evolution operator with the help of the path-integral, we derive a formula for the low-lying levels E = ffl0 Gamma 24ffl cos(s + ,)ss of a quantum spin system. The quenching of macroscopic quantum coherence is understood as the vanishing of cos(s + ,)ss in disagreement with the suppression of tunneling (i.e. 4ffl = 0) as claimed in the literature. A new configuration called the macroscopic Fermi-particle is suggested by the character of its wave function. The tunne- ling rate ( 24fflss ) does not vanish, not for integer spin s nor for a half-integer value of s, and is calculated explicitly (for the position dependent mass) up to the one-loop approximation.

Skyrme Sphalerons of an O(3)-oe Model and the Calculation of Transition Rates at Finite Temperature
(1997)

The reduced O(3)-oe model with an O(3) ! O(2) symmetry breaking potential is considered with an additional Skyrmionic term, i. e. a totally antisymmetric quartic term in the field derivatives. This Skyrme term does not affect the classical static equations of motion which, however, allow an unstable sphaleron solution. Quantum fluctuations around the static classical solution are considered for the determination of the rate of thermally induced transitions between topologically distinct vacua mediated by the sphaleron. The main technical effect of the Skyrme term is to produce an extra measure factor in one of the fluctuation path integrals which is therefore evaluated using a measure-modified Fourier-Matsubara decomposition (this being one of the few cases permitting this explicit calculation). The resulting transition rate is valid in a temperature region different from that of the original Skyrme-less model, and the crossover from transitions dominated by thermal fluctuations to those dominated by tunneling at the lower limit of this range depends on the strength of the Skyrme coupling.

A formula suitable for a quantitative evaluation of the tunneling effect in a ferromagnetic particle is derived with the help of the instanton method. The tunneling between n-th degenerate states of neighboring wells is dominated by a periodic pseudoparticle configuration. The low-lying level-splitting previously obtained with the LSZ method in field theory in which the tunneling is viewed as the transition of n bosons induced by the usual(vacuum) instanton is recovered.The observation made with our new result is that the tunneling effect increases at excited states. The results should be useful in analyzing results of experimental tests of macroscopic quantum coherence in ferromagnetic particles.

The tunneling splitting of the energy levels of a ferromagnetic particle in the presence of an applied magnetic field - previously derived only for the ground state with the path integral method - is obtained in a simple way from Schr"odinger theory. The origin of the factors entering the result is clearly understood, in particular the effect of the asymmetry of the barriers of the potential. The method should appeal particularly to experimentalists searching for evidence of macroscopic spin tunneling.

Transitions from classical to quantum behaviour in a spin system with two degenerate ground states separated by twin energy barriers which are asymmetric due to an applied magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that these transitions can be interpreted as first- or second-order phase transitions depending on the anisotropy and magnetic parameters defining the system in an effective Lagrangian description.

The greybody factors in BTZ black holes are evaluated from 2D CFT in the spirit of AdS3/CFT correspondence. The initial state of black holes in the usual calculation of greybody factors by effective CFT is described as Poincar'e vacuum state in 2D CFT. The normalization factor which cannot be fixed in the effective CFT without appealing to string theory is shown to be determined by the normalized bulk-to-boundary Green function. The relation among the greybody factors in different dimensional black holes is exhibited. Two kinds of (h; _h) = (1; 1) operators which couple with the boundary value of massless scalar field are discussed.

The light-cone Hamiltonian approach is applied to the super D2- brane, and the equivalent area-preserving and U(1) gauge-invariant effective Lagrangian, which is quadratic in the U(1) gauge field, is derived. The latter is recognised to be that of the three- dimensional U(1) gauge theory, interacting with matter supermultiplets, in a special external induced supergravity metric and the gravitino field, depending on matter fields. The duality between this theory and 11d supermembrane theory is demonstrated in the light-cone gauge.

The pure-Skyrme limit of a scale-breaking Skyrmed O(3) sigma model in 1+1 dimensions is employed to study the effect of the Skyrme term on the semiclassical analysis of a field theory with instantons. The instantons of this model are self-dual and can be evaluated explicitly. They are also localised to an absolute scale, and their fluctuation action can be reduced to a scalar subsystem. This permits the explicit calculation of the fluctuation determinant and the shift in vacuum energy due to instantons. The model also illustrates the semiclassical quantisation of a Skyrmed field theory.

We consider a (2 + 1)-dimensional mechanical system with the Lagrangian linear in the torsion of a light-like curve. We give Hamiltonian formulation of this system and show that its mass and spin spectra are defined by one-dimensional nonrelativistic mechanics with a cubic potential. Consequently, this system possesses the properties typical of resonance-like particles.

Starting from the Hamiltonian operator of the noncompensated two-sublattice model of a small antiferromagnetic particle, we derive the e effective Lagrangian of a biaxial antiferromagnetic particle in an external magnetic field with the help of spin-coherent-state path integrals. Two unequal level-shifts induced by tunneling through two types of barriers are obtained using the instanton method. The energy spectrum is found from Bloch theory regarding the periodic potential as a superlattice. The external magnetic field indeed removes Kramers' degeneracy, however a new quenching of the energy splitting depending on the applied magnetic field is observed for both integer and half-integer spins due to the quantum interference between transitions through two types of barriers.

It is shown, that recently constructed PST Lagrangians for chiral supergravities follow directly from earlier Kavalov-Mkrtchyan Lagrangians by an Ansatz for the ' tensor by expressing this in terms of the PST scalar. The susy algebra which included earlier ff-symmetry in the commutator of supersymmetry transformations, is now shown to include both PST symmetries, which arise from the single ff-symmetry term. The Lagrangian for the 5-brane is not described by this correspondence, and probably can be obtained from more general Lagrangians, posessing ff-symmetry.

Abstract: The periodic bounce configurations responsible for quantum tunneling are obtained explicitly and are extended to the finite energy case for minisuperspace models of the Universe. As a common feature of the tunneling models at finite energy considered here we observe that the period of the bounce increases with energy monotonically. The periodic bounces do not have bifurcations and make no contribution to the nucleation rate except the one with zero energy. The sharp first order phase transition from quantum tunneling to thermal activation is verified with the general criterions.

A pure Yang-Mills theory extended by addition of a quartic term is considered in order to study the transition from the quantum tunneling regime to that of classical, i.e. thermal, behaviour. The periodic field confiurations are found, which interpolate between the vacuum and sphaleron field configurations. It is shown by explicit calculation that only smooth second order transitions occur for all permissible values of the parameter A introduced with the quartic term. The theory is one of the rare cases which canbe handled analytically.

Abstract: The transition from the quantum to the classical regime of the nucleation of the closed Robertson-Walker Universe with spacially homogeneous matter fields is investigated with a perturbation expansion around the sphaleron configuration. A criterion is derived for the occurrence of a first-order type transition, and the related phase diagram for scalar and vector fields is obtained. For scalar fields both the first and second order transitions can occur depending on the shape of the potential barrier. For a vector field, here that of an O (3) nonlinear o-model, the transition is seen to be only of the first order. PACS numbers: 11.15.Kc, 03.65Sq, 05.70.Fh, 98.80.Cq

Abstract: The self-duality of chiral p-forms was originally investigated by Pasti, Sorokin and Tonin in a manifestly Lorentz covariant action with non-polynomial auxiliary fields. The investigation was then extended to other chiral p-form actions. In this paper we point out that the self-duality appears in a wider context of theoretical models that relate to chiral p-forms. We demonstrate this by considering the interacting model of Floreanini- Jackiw chiral bosons and gauge fields, the generalized chiral Schwinger model (GCSM) and the latter's gauge invariant formulation, and discover that the self-duality of the GCSM corresponds to the vector and axial vector current duality.

Abstract: It has recently been shown that the equation of motion of a massless scalar field in the background of some specific p branes can be reduced to a modified Mathieu equation. In the following the absorption rate of the scalar by a D3 brane in ten dimensions is calculated in terms of modified Mathieu functions of the first kind, using standard Mathieu coefficients. The relation of the latter to Dougall coefficients (used by others) is investigated. The S-matrix obtained in terms of modified Mathieu functions of the first kind is easily evaluated if known rapidly convergent low energy expansions of these in terms of products of Bessel functions are used. Leading order terms, including the interesting logarithmic contributions, can be obtained analytically.

Abstract: The duality symmetries of various chiral boson actions are investigated using D = 2 and D = 6 space-time dimensions as examples. These actions involve the Siegel, Floreanini-Jackiw, Srivastava and Pasti-Sorokin-Tonin formulations. We discover that the Siegel, Floreanini-Jackiw and Pasti-Sorokin-Tonin actions have self-duality with respect to a common anti-dualization of chiral boson fields in D = 2 and D = 6 dimensions, respectively, while the Srivastava action is self-dual with respect to a generalized dualization of chiral boson fields. Moreover, the action of the Floreanini-Jackiw chiral bosons interacting with gauge fields in D = 2 dimensions also has self-duality but with respect to a generalized anti-dualization of chiral boson fields.

Abstract: A Born-Infeld theory describing a D2-brane coupled to a 4-form RR field strength is considered, and the general solutions of the static and Euclidean time equations are derived and discussed. The period of the bounce solutions is shown to allow a consideration of tunneling and quantum-classical transitions in the sphaleron region. The order of such transitions, depending on the strength of the RR field strength, is determined. A criterion is then derived to confirm these findings.

Abstract: The functional relation between interquark potential and interquark distance is explicitly derived by considering the Nambu-Goto action in the AdS5 X S 5 background. It is also shown that a similar relation holds in a general background. The implications of this relation for confinement are briefly discussed.

A new method is used to investigate the tunneling between two weakly-linked Bose-Einstein con- densates confined in double-well potential traps. The nonlinear interaction between the atoms in each well contributes to a finite chemical potential, which, with consideration of periodic instantons, leads to a remarkably high tunneling frequency. This result can be used to interpret the newly found Macroscopic Quantum Self Trapping (MQST) effect. Also a new kind of first-order crossover between different regions is predicted.

Abstract: The calculation of absorption cross sections for minimal scalars in supergravity backgrounds is an important aspect of the investigation of AdS/CFT correspondence and requires a matching of appropriate wave functions. The low energy case has attracted particular attention. In the following the dependence of the cross section on the matching point is investigated. It is shown that the low energy limit is independent of the matching point and hence exhibits universality. In the high energy limit the independence is not maintained, but the result is believed to possess the correct energy dependence.

Abstract: The transition from the instanton-dominated quantum regime to the sphaleron-dominated classical regime is studied in the d = 2 abelian-Higgs model when the spatial coordinate is compactified to S1. Contrary to the noncompactified case, this model allows both sharp first-order and smooth second-order transitions depending on the size of the circle. This finding may make the model a useful toy model for the analysis of baryon number violating processes.

Abstract: Standard methods of nonlinear dynamics are used to investigate the stability of particles, branes and D-branes of abelian Born-Infeld theory. In particular the equation of small fluctuations about the D-brane is derived and converted into a modified Mathieu equation and - complementing earlier low-energy investigations in the case of the dilaton-axion system - studied in the high-energy domain. Explicit expressions are derived for the S-matrix and absorption and reflection amplitudes of the scalar fluctuation in the presence of the D-brane. The results confirm physical expectations and numerical studies of others. With the derivation and use of the (hitherto practically unknown) high energy expansion of the Floquet exponent our considerations also close a gap in earlier treatments of the Mathieu equation.

Abstact. The tunnel splitting in biaxial antiferromagnetic particles is studied with a magnetic field applied along the hard anisotropy axis. We observe the oscillation of tunnel splitting as a function of the magnetic field due to the quantum phase interference of two tunneling paths of opposite windings. The oscillation is similar to the recent experimental result with Fe8 molecular clusters.

Abstract: The point-particle-like Hamiltonian of a biaxial spin particle with external magnetic field along the hard axis is obtained in terms of the potential field description of spin systems with exact spin-coordinate correspondence. The Zeeman energy term turns out to be an effective gauge potential which leads to a nonintegrable phase of the Euclidean Feynman propagator. The phase interference between clockwise and anticlockwise under barrier propagations is recognized explicitly as the Aharonov-Bohm effect. An additional phase which is significant for quantum phase interference is discovered with the quantum theory of spin systems besides the known phase obtained with the semiclassical treatment of spin. We also show the energy dependence of the effect and obtain the tunneling splitting at excited states with the help of periodic instantons.

Abstract: Following our earlier investigations we examine the quantum-classical winding number transition in the Abelian-Higgs system. It is demonstrated that the winding number transition in this system is of the smooth second order type in the full range of parameter space. Comparison of the action of classical vortices with that of the sphaleron supports our finding.

Abstract: Winding number transitions from quantum to classical behavior are studied in the case of the 1+1 dimensional Mottola-Wipf model with the space coordinate on a circle for exploring the possibility of obtaining transitions of second order. The model is also studied as a prototype theory which demonstrates the procedure of such investigations. In the model at hand we find that even on a circle the transitions remain those of first order.

Abstract: In the context of AdS/CFT correspondence the two Wilson loop correlator is examined at both zero and finite temperatures. On the basis of an entirely analytical approach we have found for Nambu-Goto strings the functional relation dSc(Reg) /dL = 2*pi*k between Euclidean action Sc and loop separation L with integration constant k, which corresponds to the analogous formula for point-particles. The physical implications of this relation are explored in particular for the Gross-Ooguri phase transition at finite temperature.

Abstract: The behavior of the divergent part of the bulk AdS/CFT effective action is considered with respect to the special finite diffeomorphism transformations acting on the boundary as a Weyl transformation of the boundary metric. The resulting 1-cocycle of the Weyl group is in full agreement with the 1-cocycle of the Weyl group obtained from the cohomological consideration of the effective action of the corresponding CFT.