A formula suitable for a quantitative evaluation of the tunneling effect in a ferromagnetic particle is derived with the help of the instanton method. The tunneling between n-th degenerate states of neighboring wells is dominated by a periodic pseudoparticle configuration. The low-lying level-splitting previously obtained with the LSZ method in field theory in which the tunneling is viewed as the transition of n bosons induced by the usual(vacuum) instanton is recovered.The observation made with our new result is that the tunneling effect increases at excited states. The results should be useful in analyzing results of experimental tests of macroscopic quantum coherence in ferromagnetic particles.

The tunneling splitting of the energy levels of a ferromagnetic particle in the presence of an applied magnetic field - previously derived only for the ground state with the path integral method - is obtained in a simple way from Schr"odinger theory. The origin of the factors entering the result is clearly understood, in particular the effect of the asymmetry of the barriers of the potential. The method should appeal particularly to experimentalists searching for evidence of macroscopic spin tunneling.

2D quantum dilaton gravitational Hamiltonian, boundary terms and new definition for total energy
(1995)

The ADM and Bondi mass for the RST model have been first discussed from Hawking and Horowitz's argument. Since there is a nonlocal term in the RST model, the RST lagrangian has to be localized so that Hawking and Horowitz's proposal can be carried out. Expressing the localized RST action in terms of the ADM formulation, the RST Hamiltonian can be derived, meanwhile keeping track of all boundary terms. Then the total boundary terms can be taken as the total energy for the RST model. Our result shows that the previous expression for the ADM and Bondi mass actually needs to be modified at quantum level, but at classical level, our mass formula can be reduced to that given by Bilal and Kogan [5] and de Alwis [6]. It has been found that there is a new contribution to the ADM and Bondi mass from the RST boundary due to the existence of the hidden dynamical field. The ADM and Bondi mass with and without the RST boundary for the static and dynamical solutions have been discussed respectively in detail, and some new properties have been found. The thunderpop of the RST model has also been encountered in our new Bondi mass formula.

Quantum tunneling between degenerate ground states through the central barrier of a potential is extended to excited states with the instanton method. This extension is achieved with the help of an LSZ reduction technique as in field theory and may be of importance in the study of macroscopic quantum phenomena in magnetic systems.

Starting from the coherent state representation of the evolution operator with the help of the path-integral, we derive a formula for the low-lying levels E = ffl0 Gamma 24ffl cos(s + ,)ss of a quantum spin system. The quenching of macroscopic quantum coherence is understood as the vanishing of cos(s + ,)ss in disagreement with the suppression of tunneling (i.e. 4ffl = 0) as claimed in the literature. A new configuration called the macroscopic Fermi-particle is suggested by the character of its wave function. The tunne- ling rate ( 24fflss ) does not vanish, not for integer spin s nor for a half-integer value of s, and is calculated explicitly (for the position dependent mass) up to the one-loop approximation.

Abstract: It is shown that nonvacuum pseudoparticles can account forquantum tunneling and metastability. In particular the saddle-point nature of the pseudoparticles is demonstrated, and the evaluation of path-integrals in their neighbourhood. Finally the relation between instantons and bounces is used to derive a result conjectured by Bogomolny andFateyev.