### Refine

#### Keywords

- branch and cut (2)
- facets (2)
- facility location (2)
- hub location (2)
- integer programming (2)
- valid inequalities (2)

#### Faculty / Organisational entity

- Fraunhofer (ITWM) (3) (remove)

This paper details models and algorithms which can be applied to evacuation problems. While it concentrates on building evacuation many of the results are applicable also to regional evacuation. All models consider the time as main parameter, where the travel time between components of the building is part of the input and the overall evacuation time is the output. The paper distinguishes between macroscopic and microscopic evacuation models both of which are able to capture the evacuees' movement over time. Macroscopic models are mainly used to produce good lower bounds for the evacuation time and do not consider any individual behavior during the emergency situation. These bounds can be used to analyze existing buildings or help in the design phase of planning a building. Macroscopic approaches which are based on dynamic network flow models (minimum cost dynamic flow, maximum dynamic flow, universal maximum flow, quickest path and quickest flow) are described. A special feature of the presented approach is the fact, that travel times of evacuees are not restricted to be constant, but may be density dependent. Using multicriteria optimization priority regions and blockage due to fire or smoke may be considered. It is shown how the modelling can be done using time parameter either as discrete or continuous parameter. Microscopic models are able to model the individual evacuee's characteristics and the interaction among evacuees which influence their movement. Due to the corresponding huge amount of data one uses simulation approaches. Some probabilistic laws for individual evacuee's movement are presented. Moreover ideas to model the evacuee's movement using cellular automata (CA) and resulting software are presented. In this paper we will focus on macroscopic models and only summarize some of the results of the microscopic approach. While most of the results are applicable to general evacuation situations, we concentrate on building evacuation.

We examine the feasibility polyhedron of the uncapacitated hub location problem (UHL) with multiple allocation, which has applications in the fields of air passenger and cargo transportation, telecommunication and postal delivery services. In particular we determine the dimension and derive some classes of facets of this polyhedron. We develop some general rules about lifting facets from the uncapacitated facility location (UFL) for UHL and projecting facets from UHL to UFL. By applying these rules we get a new class of facets for UHL which dominates the inequalities in the original formulation. Thus we get a new formulation of UHL whose constraints are all facet–defining. We show its superior computational performance by benchmarking it on a well known data set.

Given a public transportation system represented by its stops and direct connections between stops, we consider two problems dealing with the prices for the customers: The fare problem in which subsets of stops are already aggregated to zones and "good" tariffs have to be found in the existing zone system. Closed form solutions for the fare problem are presented for three objective functions. In the zone problem the design of the zones is part of the problem. This problem is NP hard and we therefore propose three heuristics which prove to be very successful in the redesign of one of Germany's transportation systems