- Englisch (46) (entfernen)
- Manipulating deformable linear objects - Vision-based recognition of contact state transitions - (1999)
- A new and systematic approach to machine vision-based robot manipulation of deformable (non-rigid) linear objects is introduced. This approach reduces the computational needs by using a simple state-oriented model of the objects. These states describe the relation of the object with respect to an obstacle and are derived from the object image and its features. Therefore, the object is segmented from a standard video frame using a fast segmentation algorithm. Several object features are presented which allow the state recognition of the object while being manipulated by the robot.
- Force- and Vision-based Detection of Contact State Transitions (2000)
- A new and systematic basic approach to force- and vision-based robot manipulation of deformable (non-rigid) linear objects is introduced. This approach reduces the computational needs by using a simple state-oriented model of the objects. These states describe the relation between the deformable and rigid obstacles, and are derived from the object image and its features. We give an enumeration of possible contact states and discuss the main characteristics of each state. We investigate the performance of robust transitions between the contact states and derive criteria and conditions for each of the states and for two sensor systems, i.e. a vision sensor and a force/torque sensor. This results in a new and task-independent approach in regarding the handling of deformable objects and in a sensor-based implementation of manipulation primitives for industrial robots. Thus, the usage of sensor processing is an appropriate solution for our problem. Finally, we apply the concept of contact states and state transitions to the description of a typical assembly task. Experimental results show the feasibility of our approach: A robot performs several contact state transitions which can be combined for solving a more complex task.
- Manipulating Deformable Linear Objects: Characteristic Features for Vision-Based Detection of Contact State Transitions (2003)
- This paper deals with the handling of deformable linear objects (DLOs), such as hoses, wires, or leaf springs. It investigates usable features for the vision-based detection of a changing contact situation between a DLO and a rigid polyhedral obstacle and a classification of such contact state transitions. The result is a complete classification of contact state transitions and of the most significant features for each class. This knowledge enables reliable detection of changes in the DLO contact situation, facilitating implementation of sensor-based manipulation skills for all possible contact changes.
- Safe Human-Robot-Cooperation:Problem Analysis,System Concept and Fast Sensor Fusion (2001)
- We present a system concept allowing humans to work safely in the same environment as a robot manipulator. Several cameras survey the common workspace. A look-up-table-based fusion algorithm is used to back-project directly from the image spaces of the cameras to the manipulator?s con-figuration space. In the look-up-tables both, the camera calibration and the robot geometry are implicitly encoded. For experiments, a conven-tional 6 axis industrial manipulator is used. The work space is surveyed by four grayscale cameras. Due to the limits of present robot controllers, the computationally expensive parts of the system are executed on a server PC that communicates with the robot controller via Ethernet.
- Safe Human-Robot-Cooperation: Image-based Collision Detection for Industrial Robots (2002)
- This paper analyzes the problem of sensor-based colli-sion detection for an industrial robotic manipulator. A method to perform collision tests based on images taken from several stationary cameras in the work cell is pre-sented. The collision test works entirely based on the im-ages, and does not construct a representation of the Carte-sian space. It is shown how to perform a collision test for all possible robot configurations using only a single set of images taken simultaneously.
- Development of the First Force-Controlled Robot for Otoneurosurgery (2003)
- Objective: In some surgical specialties, e.g. orthopedics, robots are already used in the operating room for bony milling work. Oto- and otoneurosurgery may also greatly benefit by robotic enhanced precision. Study Design: Experimental study on robotic milling on oak wood and human temporal bone specimen. Methods: A standard industrial robot with a 6 degrees-of-freedom serial kinematics was used with force feedback to proportionally control the robot speed. Different milling modes and characteristic path parameters were evaluated to generate milling paths based on CAD geometry data of a cochlear implant and an implantable hearing system. Results: The best suited strategy proofed to be the spiral horizontal milling mode with the burr held perpendicularly to the temporal bone surface. In order to avoid high grooves, the distance in between paths should equal half the radius of the cutting burr head. Due to the vibration of the robot’s own motors, a rather high oscillation of the standard deviation of forces was encountered. This oscillation dropped drastically to nearly 0 N, when the burr head reached contact with the dura mater due to its damping characteristics. The cutting burr could be moved a long time on the dura without damaging it, because of its rather blunt head. The robot moved the burr very smoothly according to the encountered resistances. Conclusion: This is the first development of an functioning robotic milling procedure for otoneurosurgery with force-based speed control. It is planned to implement ultrasound-based local navigation and to perform robotic mastoidectomy.
- Space-efficient region filling in raster graphics (1994)
- This paper presents fill algorithms for boundary-defined regions in raster graphics. The algorithms require only a constant size working memory. The methods presented are based on the so-called "seed fill" algorithms using the internal connectivity of the region with a given inner point. Basic methods as well as additional heuristics for speeding up the algorithm are described and verified. For different classes of regions, the time complexity of the algorithms is compared using empirical results.
- Initialization of parallel branch-and-bound algorithms (1993)
- Four different initialization methods for parallel Branch-and-bound algorithms are described and compared with reference to several criteria. A formal analysis of their idle times and efficiency follows. It indicates that the efficiency of three methods depends on the branching factor of the search tree. Furthermore, the fourth method offers the best efficiency of the overall algorithm when a centralized OPEN set is used. Experimental results by a PRAM simulation support these statements.
- A review of parallel processing approaches to motion planning (1996)
- One of the many features needed to support the activities of autonomous systems is the ability of motion planning. It enables robots to move in their environment securely and to accomplish given tasks. Unfortunately, the control loop comprising sensing, planning, and acting has not yet been closed for robots in dynamic environments. One reason involves the long execution times of the motion planning component. A solution for this problem is offered by the use of highly computational parallelism. Thus, an important task is the parallelization of existing motion planning algorithms for robots so that they are suitable for highly computational parallelism. In several cases, completely new algorithms have to be designed, so that a parallelization is feasible. In this survey, we review recent approaches to motion planning using parallel computation.